Several techniques and parameters have been introduced to assess diastolic function of the heart. Finally, at the end of the chapter you will find a few examples of diastolic function in the clinical setting. Our new Cardiac Filling Masterclass will help healthcare professionals master the topic in a simple and intuitive way. Pre-register now for our new course Cardiac Filling MasterClass and get free contents in advance. The evaluation mitral inflow plays an important role in grading diastolic dysfunction in patients with reduced EF or structural heart disease.
Circulation ; 59 : 14— Measurements were performed off line by an diastokic observer who had no knowledge of the Doppler or Tissue Doppler findings. This article has been corrected. Tissue Doppler recordings of septal mitral annular velocities. Cardiac catheterization was not performed to evaluate Imflow diastolic function. Diastolic dysfunction and elevated filling pressures are commonly observed in several conditions. Apical four-chamber with color flow imaging to help position pulsed Doppler sample Mitral valve inflow diastolic dysfunction 1—3 mm axial size.
Tara moon misty knight. Likely mechanisms diastolic dysfunction
On the Doppler tracing the diastolic signal shows a negative deflection. Seen early ifnlow patients with subclinical hypertensives. However, when valvr is rather long bradycardia and a clear separation is seen between the E-wave and the A-wave, an additional L-wave may be observed during mid-diastole. Hot sexy aunties concept of DD onset preceding the appearance of LVH is consistent with the observation that BNP, whose Mitral valve inflow diastolic dysfunction grow gradually with the progression of DD grading from abnormal relaxation until restrictive Doppler patterns [ 46 ], are increased in patients with diastolic HF independent of the magnitude of LV mass [ 47 ]. The major drawback of using the Doppler inflow signal is that it is limited to patients who have sinus rhythm. Prevalence of diastolic HF The studies performed until now have assessed above all the prevalence of HF with inflod EF, using standard Mitra, without Doppler. Cynthia Kaufman. They also represent early and late diastolic filling, respectively. Prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in a general population. Literature Clinical assessment of left ventricular diastolic function. The spectrum will then display a slanted flame-like color plot that is blue at its center. Right: an A-wave Mitral valve inflow diastolic dysfunction as large as the E-wave indicates impaired LV relaxation.
- Last week we reviewed some common errors found when measuring diastolic function.
- Metrics details.
- Several techniques and parameters have been introduced to assess diastolic function of the heart.
- The left ventricle is filled with blood initially by a pressure gradient between the left atrium LA and the left ventricle LV.
Sherif F. Nagueh, Otto A. Smiseth, Christopher P. Appleton, Benjamin F. Flachskampf, Thierry C. Gillebert, Allan L. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular LV diastolic function is an integral part of the routine evaluation of patients presenting with symptoms of dyspnea or heart failure.
The primary goal of this update is to simplify the approach and thus increase the utility of the guidelines in daily clinical practice. LV diastolic dysfunction is usually the result of impaired LV relaxation with or without reduced restoring forces and early diastolic suction , and increased LV chamber stiffness, which increase cardiac filling pressures.
Thus, when performing an echocardiographic study in patients with potential diastolic dysfunction, one should search for signs of impaired LV relaxation, reduced restoring forces and increased diastolic stiffness. In the majority of clinical studies, LV filling pressures and diastolic function grade can be determined reliably by a few simple echocardiographic parameters with a high feasibility. In addition, technical developments have emerged that provide new indices that appear promising for studying LV diastolic function.
Before applying the guidelines, it is essential to consider what the term LV filling pressures refers to. Although the current recommendations are focused on echocardiographic techniques, it should be noted that both nuclear scans and cardiac magnetic resonance can be used to evaluate LV filling rates and volumes.
Notably, measurements derived by both techniques are affected by LV relaxation and LV filling pressures and are quite similar to measurements and derivatives obtained from mitral inflow velocities.
PW Doppler sample volume 1—3 mm axial size at level of mitral annulus limited data on how duration compares between annulus and leaflet tips. Optimal spectral waveforms should be sharp and not display signal spikes, feathering or ghosting.
LA volume should be measured in dedicated views in which LA length and transverse diameters are maximized. Apical four-chamber with color flow imaging to help position pulsed Doppler sample volume 1—3 mm axial size.
Parasternal and apical four-chamber view with color flow imaging to obtain highest Doppler velocity aligned with CW. Adjust gain and contrast to display complete spectral envelope without signal spikes or feathering. Sinus tachycardia, first-degree AV block and paced rhythm can result in fusion of the E and A waves.
In patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, filling patterns correlate better with filling pressures, functional class, and prognosis than LVEF.
A restrictive filling pattern in combination with LA dilation in patients with normal EFs is associated with a poor prognosis similar to a restrictive pattern in dilated cardiomyopathy. The U-shaped relation with LV diastolic function makes it difficult to differentiate normal from PN filling, particularly with normal LVEF, without additional variables.
Not every patient can perform this maneuver adequately. The patient must generate and sustain a sufficient increase in intrathoracic pressure, and the examiner needs to maintain the correct sample volume location between the mitral leaflet tips during the maneuver. It can be applied in patients with mitral stenosis in whom the same relation with LV filling pressures described above holds. Limited accuracy in patients with CAD and regional dysfunction in the sampled segments, significant MAC, surgical rings or prosthetic mitral valves and pericardial disease.
Provides diagnostic and prognostic information about LV diastolic dysfunction and chronicity of disease. Suboptimal image quality, including LA foreshortening, in technically challenging studies precludes accurate tracings.
It can be difficult to measure LA volumes in patients with ascending and descending aortic aneurysms as well as in patients with large interatrial septal aneurysms.
Difficult to interpret in patients with sinus tachycardia or first-degree AV block with E and A fusion. Adequate recording of a full envelope is not always possible, though intravenous agitated saline or contrast increases yield.
Adequate recording of a full PR jet envelope is not always possible though intravenous contrast increases yield. Left LV diastolic pressures recording. Tissue Doppler recordings of septal mitral annular velocities. In A , Doppler settings and sample volume location are optimal, whereas in B the sample volume is placed in the ventricular septum not annulus. Doppler setting are suboptimal in C with low gain and in D with high filter. Tissue Doppler recordings of lateral mitral annular velocities.
In A , Doppler sample volume is located in part in LV cavity. In B the sample volume is in basal segment of lateral wall, in C the location is partly outside the heart altogether, and in D it is located in the left atrium above the mitral annulus. With respect to the grading of LV diastolic dysfunction, it is the recommendation of the writing group to determine the grade of diastolic function based on the presence or absence of elevated LV filling pressures as a first step.
The following sections are applicable to the general population of patients seen in an echocardiography laboratory but not in the presence of specific diseases or rhythm disorders, which are discussed separately later on in the document.
Differentiation between normal and abnormal diastolic function is complicated by overlap between Doppler indices values in healthy individuals and those with diastolic dysfunction. Therefore, filling patterns in the elderly resemble those observed in mild diastolic dysfunction in younger patients 40—60 years , and age should be taken into account when evaluating diastolic function variables.
Rate of relaxation reflects decay of active fiber force. Restoring forces which account for diastolic suction, are illustrated by an elastic spring which is compressed to a dimension L min less than its resting length L 0 and recoils back to resting length when the compression is released. Valsalva maneuver in a patient with grade II diastolic dysfunction. Example of normal findings from a young subject. The study is inconclusive if half of the parameters do not meet the cutoff values.
LV and RV pressure recordings along with mitral inflow and tricuspid inflow obtained from a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy. Mitral inflow top shows restrictive filling pattern.
The corresponding tricuspid inflow pattern bottom shows an impaired relaxation pattern. In the presence of normal LV and RV filling pressures and myocardial dysfunction, both tricuspid inflow and mitral inflow reveal an impaired relaxation pattern. Thus, the presence in this case of an impaired relaxation pattern for tricuspid inflow and a restrictive filling pattern for mitral inflow supports the conclusion that LV filling pressures are elevated.
Abbreviations as in other figures. Mitral inflow left and pulmonary venous flow right from a patient with HFrEF. Both findings are consistent with increased LAP in this patient population. Isovolumic contraction velocity IVC is biphasic. Mitral inflow pattern is consistent with elevated LV filling pressures.
Notice the abbreviated mitral A velocity with short duration. DT of mitral E velocity Mdt measured at msec. This is seen in patients with markedly delayed LV relaxation such that LV diastolic pressure continues to decline after mitral valve opening. Right Pulmonary venous flow from the same patient. Mitral inflow from a patient with hypertensive heart disease with normal EF. Patient has LV hypertrophy and a moderately enlarged left atrium.
Mitral inflow shows pseudonormal LV filling pattern consistent with elevated LV filling pressures and grade II diastolic dysfunction. The arrows in the right panel point to IVRT between aortic valve closure and mitral valve opening. L velocity from a patient in sinus rhythm and increased LAP. Notice the presence of L velocity in mitral inflow and septal tissue Doppler signals arrows. LA stunning after cardioversion. Importantly, among the above mentioned parameters, the peak velocity of TR jet by CW Doppler provides a direct estimate of PASP when combined with right atrial pressure.
If all three parameters are available for interpretation and only one of three meets the cutoff value, then LAP is normal and there is grade I diastolic dysfunction.
If two of three or all three available parameters meet the corresponding cutoff values then LAP is elevated and there is grade II diastolic dysfunction. If only one parameter is available, LAP and grade of diastolic dysfunction should not be reported and likewise if there is discrepancy between the only two available parameters. The assessment of LV filling pressures is important in patients with HFrEF as it can successfully guide medical treatment. TR velocity 3. RV—to—right atrial pressure gradient was 43 mm Hg and hepatic venous flow showed predominant forward flow during diastole D , consistent with elevated right atrial pressure 10—15 mm Hg.
In normal elderly subjects without cardiac disease, predominant forward flow in hepatic veins occurs during systole. Relation of mean right atrial pressure to echocardiographic and Doppler parameters of right atrial and right ventricular function. Guidelines for the echocardiographic assessment of the right heart in adults: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography endorsed by the European Association of Echocardiography, a registered branch of the European Society of Cardiology, and the Canadian Society of Echocardiography.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ;— The corresponding grade of diastolic dysfunction is grade I. Importantly, all three indices have been shown to be of value in identifying patients with HFpEF. When two of three or all three variables meet the cutoff threshold, mean LAP is elevated and there is grade II diastolic dysfunction.
Conversely, if two of three or all three variables do not meet the cutoff threshold, then LAP is normal and grade I diastolic dysfunction is present.
If one of two available parameters gives opposite information to the other signal, or if there is only one parameter with satisfactory quality for analysis, neither LAP nor diastolic grade should be reported.
In patients with reduced LVEFs, transmitral inflow pattern is usually sufficient to identify patients with increased LAP and DT of mitral E velocity is an important predictor of outcome.
If only one of three available variables meets the cutoff value, then LAP is normal and grade I diastolic dysfunction is present. The rationale for this recommendation comes from several single center and epidemiologic studies showing the independent and incremental prognostic information provided by LV diastolic dysfunction grade in several settings including HFrEF, HFpEF and acute myocardial infarction.
Conclusions on LV diastolic function should be included routinely in reports when feasible, particularly in patients referred with symptoms of dyspnea or diagnosis of heart failure. The report should comment on LV filling pressures and the grade of LV diastolic dysfunction.
If available, comparison with previous studies is encouraged to detect and comment on changes in diastolic function grade over time. In some of the disorders the algorithm outlined above has significant limitations. PASP estimated from the TR jet, however, is a valid index of LAP in all conditions mentioned, provided there is no evidence of pulmonary vascular or parenchymal disease. In the absence of AF or atrial flutter, mitral valve disease or heart transplantation, an increased LA volume with a normal appearing right atrial size is a robust indicator of elevated LAP.
One significant limitation to this marker is if heart failure therapy has resulted in normalization of pressures with persistent LA dilatation. Conclusions should not be based on single measurements.
Ultrastructural features of diastolic dysfunction The extracellular matrix ECM , corresponding to fibrillar collagen, is an important structure for processes of both myocardial contraction and relaxation. On the other hand, Doppler recording of transmitral and pulmonary venous flow measure flow velocities and time intervals, whose variations occur in relation to analogous variations of left atrial and LV pressures [ 11 , 12 ]. When DD is overt, it is also important to control heart rate and avoid tachycardia. Clinical assessment of left ventricular diastolic function. Dunlay et al. It rises mainly from the advancement of non invasive imaging tools, above all Doppler echocardiography, which, to date, allows easy and repeatable identification of LV diastolic abnormalities, and by the growing impulse of pharmaceutical industry, at constant search of new therapeutic applications.
Mitral valve inflow diastolic dysfunction. New course: Cardiac Filling MasterClass
Echocardiography should be used as a tool in patients showing signs or symptoms of heart failure, e. There are various variables to assess diastolic function using corresponding pathological cut off values:. Note: A grading of diastolic dysfunction is only relevant in patients with reduced EF or structural heart disease, because it may change treatment decisions. Pulmonary vein peak systolic to peak diastolic velocity should be used if one of the other variables is not available in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.
Note that normal pulmonary flow consists of a systolic and a diastolic component and a very brief flow reversal negative wave during atrial systole. Indication: If resting echo does not explain the symptoms of heart failure or dyspnea especially with exertion. It is considered positive if all three criterias apply:. If flow occurs usually during bradycardia this wave is called an L-Wave and denotes elevated filling pressures. This is due to a very strong suction of the LV during diastole.
Be aware that suboptimal Doppler signals can lead to misinterpretation. You should not interpret such a signal. Be aware that one normal parameter e. Be aware that IVRT becomes longer when people get older and influenced by heart rate and systolic function.
It is age dependent, preload dependent and it varies when left ventricular systolic function changes. Note that an increased LA volume index can also be found physiologically in well-trained athletes with bradycardia.
Left: PW-Doppler sample volume is placed at the tips of the mitral valve in the left ventricle. Right: normal mitral velocities, inflow coming from the left atrium in the left ventricle during diastole, shown here with color Doppler. Left: pulsed wave PW Doppler spectral display shows an E-wave with higher velocities, as well as an end-diatolic A-wave with lower velocities. Right: an A-wave twice as large as the E-wave indicates impaired LV relaxation.
The sample volume, when placed at the medial mitral annulus, shows slower velocities as when placed at the lateral annulus. Right: normal LV wall velocities during cardiac cycle, here a color coded display. Left: spectral tissue Doppler TDI display shows an antegrade sys- tolic, and two retrograde waves, E' passive LV filling and A'-wave atrial contraction.
Right: E' and A' waves show here a reversed relationship. In com- bination with other parameters this could indicate an impairment of relaxation or a pseudonormal pattern. Pulmonary venous flow examination Pulmonary venous flow velocities can be assessed with PW-Doppler. Localization of pulmonary veins with color Doppler is relatively easy, and allows to place sample volume at the right position. Usefulness of the examination of pulmonary venous for estimation of left atrial pressure was shown by Kuecherer H et al.
Circulation ; Left: pulmonary venous flow can be assessed with PW-Doppler from the apical four-chamber view. Right: normal pulmonary vein velocities into the left atrium during cardiac cycle, here shown with color Doppler. Left: PW Doppler spectral display shows a larger systolic S , a diastolic D and a smaller end- diastolic wave AR , the atrial contraction.
Right: the shift towards diastole, with a predominant diastolic wave D speak for an increase of LA pressure. This can be documented in a case of impairment of LV compliance restrictive pattern. Velocity of flow progression Vp Velocity of flow progression Vp during diastole can be assessed with color Doppler M-mode.
Recent advances in echocardiography have enabled the understanding of this complex process, particularly relevant in the setting of an aging population and rising prevalence of heart failure HF with preserved systolic function. Predisposing conditions for the development of DD include hypertension, LV hypertrophy LVH , older age, female gender, obesity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease CAD 10 , However, with emerging technologies that question the accuracy of normal systolic function, the pathophysiology of HFNEF remains controversial Zile, et al.
Concomitant abnormalities in arterial mechanics and disturbance in ventriculoarterial coupling play a major role in the pathophysiology of HFNEF.
Mann, et al. The value of LVEF as a measure of LV systolic function has been questioned 14 , given among other limitations its load dependence. Using Tissue Doppler Imaging TDI , several groups 29 , 30 have described reduced systolic longitudinal myocardial velocities as well as reduced longitudinal and radial strain 31 in HFNEF patients compared to controls.
Concomitant valvular abnormalities, structural heart disease and pericardial disease are of particular relevance in the overall interpretation and are differential diagnoses of HFNEF. Traditional diastolic measures include mitral inflow velocity and pulmonary venous flow indices. Doppler derived mitral inflow forms the basis of evaluation of diastolic function and reflects acuity of left sided filling pressures.
Apart from LV diastolic properties and filling pressures, many physiological determinants affect the mitral inflow profile. Other determinants include loading conditions, heart rate and rhythm, PR interval, cardiac output, mitral annular size and LA function These patterns represent progressively worsening diastolic function and increasing LV filling pressures.
When this pattern remains fixed with Valsalva, it is categorised as grade IV diastolic dysfunction fixed restrictive filling. Pulmonary vein flow with panel a demonstrating systolic dominant flow and pane B diastolic dominant flow patterns. A number of the mitral inflow parameters have prognostic value, the commonest being a short DT and a persistent restrictive filling pattern 38 , In the clinical setting of acute myocardial infarction, a pseudonormal or restrictive filling pattern portends increased HF, unfavourable LV remodelling and increased cardiovascular mortality irrespective of LVEF 40 , Likewise, a restrictive filling pattern with LA enlargement in a patient with normal EF e.
PW Doppler interrogation of pulmonary venous PV flow obtained from the apical four chamber view, comprises four variables; peak systolic flow velocity S , peak diastolic flow velocity D , peak atrial reversal AR flow velocity and AR duration AR dur.
D velocity is influenced by LV filling and compliance and changes parallel to mitral E velocity AR velocity and duration are affected by LV late diastolic pressures, atrial preload and LA contractility There is an age related effect on PV flow.
Pulmonary venous flow parameters are complementary to mitral inflow pattern in the diagnosis of DD. Unlike mitral inflow velocities, there have been limited studies in ascertaining the prognostic role of PV flow.
Flow propagation velocity Vp is obtained by measuring the slope of the isovelocity line demarcated by the colour wavefront, representing the pressure gradient between the LV base and apex.
During myocardial ischemia or HF, there is slowing of the LV base to apical flow propagation 60 , Vp characterises LV relaxation, and has been correlated with invasive measurements and shown to be relatively independent of loading conditions Vp is influenced by LV systolic function, which may act to normalise Vp in the presence of impaired LV relaxation 67 , Currently, this modality is seldomly utilised in clinical practice, given its limitations such as accuracy of measurements and interobserver variability.
In addition to its diagnostic utility, TDI velocities provide incremental prognostic value. Longitudinal myocardial velocity is measured by Pulsed wave PW TDI, placing a sample volume at the septal or lateral mitral annulus in the apical four chamber view Reference values must be adjusted for age given the normal age dependent reduction in diastolic function 75 , The systolic velocity S' corresponds to ventricular ejection while the early E' and late A' diastolic velocities correspond to ventricular filling and atrial contraction respectively.
S' velocity is a sensitive marker of subclinical LV systolic dysfunction, even in those with apparently preserved LVEF such as DHF 14 , or in diabetic subjects without overt heart disease E' represents the early diastolic lengthening velocity of longitudinal LV fibers 82 that declines with normal ageing 83 , In normal conditions, E' occurs coincident with, or just before, the transmitral E wave, whereas in HF, there is a progressive delay in E' with respect to E Low E' velocity predicts mortality incremental to clinical and echocardiographic data as illustrated by Wang, et al.
Peak velocity during atrial contraction, the A' velocity, is an accurate marker of global atrial function 94 correlating with LA fractional area and volume change 95 and other traditional parameters of LA function peak A velocity, atrial fraction, and atrial ejection force One major limitation of E' velocity is the assumption that it reflects global LV relaxation. In subjects with segmental wall motion abnormality resulting in reduced annular velocity at the corresponding site, it leads to a spuriously low estimate of global LV relaxation.
This is obtained by measuring the time interval between the QRS complex and the onset of E and subtracting that from the time interval between QRS complex and E'.
The left atrium LA , being in continuum with the LV during diastole when the mitral valve is open, is constantly exposed to the LV loading pressure.
In the setting of DD, the LA is subject to elevated filling pressures resulting in remodelling and changes in its volume and function. Left atrial size, expressed as a volume indexed to body surface area has been shown to be a robust biomarker of the severity and chronicity of DD and of cardiovascular disease risk The published reference values for mean indexed LA volume based on groups of healthy individuals reported by Thomas, et al.
In persons free of cardiovascular disease, indexed LA volume is independent of age ; importantly, LA enlargement is a reflection of the pathophysiologic perturbations rather than a consequence of normal aging As such, studies have demonstrated that LA volume increases with worsening severity and increasing duration of DD , , , and an indexed LA volume has the highest discriminative value in distinguishing between normal and pseudonormal transmitral filling pattern Tsang, et al.
In the setting of abnormal relaxation, the relative contribution of the LA reservoir and contractile function increases and conduit function diminishes; while the LA functions primarily as a conduit as LV filling pressures increase with advancing DD TDI derived strain rate SR and strain S measurements are quantitative indices of myocardial deformation , and are relatively independent of translational motion due to tethering by neighbouring myocardium in contrast to TDI myocardial velocities.
S measures tissue deformation while SR measures the rate of tissue deformation Mathematically, strain is the integral of SR, with shortening expressed as a negative and lengthening as a positive value Both modalities have been validated against sonomicrometry and cardiac MRI , Importantly, echocardiographic methods have higher frame rates than cardiac MR and are better suited to study temporal aspects of cardiac function.
Recent studies suggest that myocardial S and SR may provide further information on diastolic function. Voigt, et al. Pislaru, et al. There is evidence in an animal model that segmental early diastolic SR correlates with the degree of interstitial fibrosis It is not affected by mitral annular or valvular disease and occurs when the valves are closed and therefore is not exposed to transmitral pressure gradient.
Despite their utility, there are a number of pitfalls of S and SR imaging. In addition, measurements provide only a one dimensional estimation of myocardial deformation, and radial and circumferential axes can only be assessed in limited views. Combined with lower reproducibility, the widespread clinical use of this technology has not occurred. In contrast, speckle tracking is based on the recognition and tracking of speckles, which represent unique acoustic identification for each myocardial region.
However, speckle tracking has a lower frame rate than TDI and can therefore underestimate deformation rate. LV twist or torsion describes the wringing motion of the LV and occurs because of the helical arrangement of LV subendocardial and subepicardial fibers During isovolumic contraction, brief apical clockwise rotation occurs that reverses rapidly becoming counterclockwise during LV ejection , , followed by untwisting clockwise rotation during early diastole.
In contrast, rotation of the base is lower in magnitude and opposite in direction. Twist during ejection predominantly deforms the subendocardial fibres, with storage of potential energy. Subsequent elastic recoil of twist deformation during isovolumic relaxation releases restoring forces, contributing to LV relaxation and early diastolic filling , LV torsion is a function of LV contractility and varies linearly with EF , while diastolic untwisting contributes to LV filling through suction generation , Wang, et al.
The onset of untwisting was significantly delayed in both systolic and diastolic HF. Takeuchi, et al. Of note, DD associated with normal aging does not cause a reduction in diastolic untwist as studies have shown normal twist mechanics in elderly individuals , Given the variability of study observations and technical limitations of twist mechanics including selection of image plane, difficulty of speckle tracking at LV base which can alter reproducibility, its clinical value in LV diastolic function assessment is as yet, not well defined.
Many patients with DD have only exertional symptoms, as filling pressures rise to maintain adequate LV filling and stroke volume. DD may not be identified in these patients without provocation.
Only few studies have invasively assessed response to aerobic exercise; upright bicycle exercise testing with simultaneous right heart catheterisation and serial radionuclide ventriculography , demonstrated that cardiac index, stroke volume index, and LVEDVI at rest were similar between HFNEF patients and controls but were lower in HFNEF patients at peak exercise. Borlaug, et al. Diastolic stress echocardiography has also been performed with dobutamine infusion in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy and restrictive filling provided prognostic information Tan, et al.
They proposed that in HFNEF, both systolic and diastolic abnormalities cause exercise limitation, particularly involving ventricular twist, delayed untwisting and deformation strain. In HFNEF patients, resting systolic mitral annular velocity, apical rotation and deformation longitudinal and radial strain were all reduced and failed to increase with exercise. In the absence of specific evidence based treatment, general principles and guidelines have been derived.
All other recommendations are evidence level C. On the other hand, the VALIDD study VAL sartan In Diastolic Dysfunction study demonstrated that blood pressure lowering in patients with hypertension and LV DD, either with valsartan or a regimen including beta blockers BB , calcium channel blockers CCB , diuretics and a blockers, elicited a similar reduction in blood pressure and improvement in diastolic relaxation.
Tachycardia is particularly deleterious in patients suffering from DHF because an increase in heart rate shortens diastolic filling Ventricular rate control can be achieved with BBs and nondihydropyridine CCBs, both of which have been shown to improve exercise parameters In AF with rapid ventricular response, rate control or restoration of sinus rhythm by pharmacological or electrical cardioversion may improve diastolic filling The Digitalis Investigation Group , demonstrated reduction in hospitalisation for HF in patients with and without systolic dysfunction on Digoxin, the benefit perhaps due to its rate control effect.
Fluid balance is achieved with the judicious use of diuretics. Treatment of exacerbating factors such as myocardial ischaemia need to be addressed and coronary revascularisation where appropriate should be considered A recent subgroup analysis from the Cardiovascular Healthy Study identified LVH as a predictor for the future development of HF independent of age, sex, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension Additionally, interstitial collagen deposition and fibrosis may account for the development of DD in hypertension Evolving technologies and advances in echocardiographic techniques have lent further insights into understanding the aetiologies and mechanisms by which they occur.
They have also enabled detailed assessment of diastolic function, providing early detection and monitoring of treatment progress.
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