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He discovered the wreck of John F. In , Ballard graduated from the University of California, Santa Barbara , earning undergraduate degrees in chemistry and geology. His first graduate degree MS , was in geophysics from the University of Hawaii 's Institute of Geophysics where he trained porpoises and whales. Ballard was working towards a Ph. Upon his request, he was transferred from the Army into the US Navy as an oceanographer.

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Minor Planet Center. Besson, Jr. Finally, a boiler was sighted, and soon after that, the hull was found. Demand valve oxygen Robrrt Diving chamber Diving medicine Hyperbaric medicine Hyperbaric treatment schedules In-water recompression Oxygen therapy Therapeutic recompression. Lariviere Will E. Rockwood John E. Pyle stop Ratio decompression. Diver organisations. Moffitt Monte Monroe Carl R. Sullivan Billy K. Bowers Michael L. Berry Larry E. Gaunter Jr. Turgeon Cecil W. Originally a land-locked fresh water Breast pain pinched nerve, the Black Sea was flooded with salt water from the Mediterranean Robert t argo gay uss during the Holocene.

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  • Sir Robert F.
  • He discovered the wreck of John F.

SH3 Harry H. SN Stephen M. SFM2 Johnny L. RM3 Richard F. Add a contribution to this image in the Fold3 Viewer. Navy cruise books were created by those aboard a ship to remember a particular deployment. In addition to portraits and information about sailors and officers aboard, the pages also include candid photos of events and daily routines, plus stories and biographies paying tribute to those who served on board.

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Tham Luang cave rescue. Hattendorf Edwin A. Farris Gordon L. They were co-authors of over 30 non-fiction books. Ward USS T. Belinda Edward L. Hot water system Downline.

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Airlift dredging device Diving chamber Diving bell Pressure washing Lifting bag Remotely operated underwater vehicle Tremie. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. When called to active duty in , he asked to fulfill his obligation in the United States Navy. His request was approved, and he was transferred to the Navy Reserve on the reserve active duty list.

After completing his active duty obligation in , he was returned to reserve status, where he remained for much of his military career, being called up only for mandatory training and special assignments.

He retired from the Navy as a commander in after reaching the statutory service limit. In summer , he began a field mapping project of the Gulf of Maine for his doctoral dissertation. It used an air gun that sent sound waves underwater to determine the underlying structure of the ocean floor and the submersible Alvin , which was used to find and recover a sample from the bedrock. During the summer of , Ballard participated in a joint French-American expedition called Phere searching for hydrothermal vents over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge , but the expedition did not find any active vents.

On the Galapagos spreading center east of the islands a exploration by Alvin found deep-sea hydrothermal vents and surrounding biology communities based on chemosynthesis. Ballard was a participating diver. While Ballard had been interested in the sea since an early age, his work at Woods Hole and his scuba diving experiences off Massachusetts spurred his interest in shipwrecks and their exploration.

His work in the Navy had involved assisting in the development of small, unmanned submersibles that could be tethered to and controlled from a surface ship, and were outfitted with lighting, cameras, and manipulator arms. As early as , he saw this as way of searching for the wreck of the Titanic. In , he led his first expedition, which was unsuccessful. Unbeknownst to some, this trip was financed by the U. However, they were interested in finding out what happened to their missing submarines and ultimately concluded that Argo was their best chance to do so.

After the two missions were completed, time and funding permitting, he was free to use resources to hunt for the Titanic. After their missions for the Navy, Knorr arrived on site on August 22, , [9] and deployed Argo.

When they searched for the two submarines, Ballard and his team discovered that they had imploded from the immense pressure at depth. In the early morning hours of September 1, , observers noted anomalies on the otherwise smooth ocean floor. At first, it was pockmarks, like small craters from impacts. Eventually, debris was sighted as the rest of the team was awakened.

Finally, a boiler was sighted, and soon after that, the hull was found. Ballard's team made a general search of the Titanic's exterior, noting its condition. They did not have much time to explore, as others were waiting to take Knorr on other scientific pursuits, but his fame was now assured.

He originally planned to keep the exact location a secret to prevent anyone from claiming prizes from it. He considered the site a cemetery, and refused to desecrate it by removing artifacts. On July 12, , Ballard and his team returned on board Atlantis II [9] to make the first detailed study of the wreck. This time, he brought Alvin. It was accompanied by Jason Junior , a small remotely operated vehicle that could fit through small openings to see into the ship's interior.

The vast majority of the relics retrieved by various groups, not including Ballard, from RMS Titanic were owned by Premier Exhibitions which filed for bankruptcy in In late August , the groups vying for ownership of the 5, relics included one by museums in England and Northern Ireland with assistance from film maker James Cameron and some financial support from National Geographic.

A decision as to the outcome was to be made by a United States district court judge. The 15, foot deep water in which it sank [14] is 4, feet deeper than that where the Titanic sank. He attempted to determine whether it had been sunk by the British or was scuttled by its own crew. Three weeks after the expedition however, personal tragedy struck him when his year-old son, Todd, who had aided him in the search, was killed in a car accident.

Ballard later published a book about the quest, The Discovery of the Bismarck The discovery was also documented for National Geographic in a James Cameron video Search for the Battleship Bismarck which indicated that the ship had been damaged by torpedoes and shells from British ships.

Film maker Cameron, however, said that his crew's examination of the wreckage indicated that the Bismarck would have sunk eventually even if it had not been scuttled. It had been struck by a torpedo, whose explosion was followed by a second, much larger one. The wreck had been depth charged by the Royal Navy several years after the sinking, and had also been damaged by other explorers, making a forensic analysis difficult.

He found no evidence of boiler explosion and he speculated the ignition of coal dust inside the ship, caused a "massive, uncontrollable [second] explosion". Ballard found no evidence to support this claim. They succeeded in finding a torpedo tube and the forward section from the shipwreck of John F.

Kennedy Library in In the s Ballard founded the Institute for Exploration , which specializes in deep-sea archaeology and deep-sea geology. It joined forces in with the Mystic Aquarium located in Mystic, Connecticut.

They are a part of the non-profit Sea Research Foundation, Inc. In , Willard Bascom suggested that the deep, anoxic waters of the Black Sea might have preserved ships from antiquity because typical wood-devouring organisms could not survive there.

Originally a land-locked fresh water lake, the Black Sea was flooded with salt water from the Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene. The influx of salt water essentially smothered the fresh water below it because a lack of internal motion and mixing meant that no fresh oxygen reached the deep waters, [22] creating a meromictic body of water.

The anoxic environment, which is hostile to many biological organisms that destroy wood in the oxygenated waters, provides an excellent testing site for deep water archaeological survey. In a series of expeditions, a team of marine archaeologists led by Ballard identified what appeared to be ancient shorelines, freshwater snail shells, and drowned river valleys in roughly feet m of water off the Black Sea coast of modern Turkey.

Radiocarbon dating of freshwater mollusk remains indicated an age of about 7, years. The team discovered three ancient wrecks to the west of the town of Sinop at depths of m. To the east of Sinop, the team discovered a remarkably well-preserved wreck at a m depth, in the Black Sea's deep anoxic waters. The vessel's entire hull and cargo are intact, buried in sediments.

Its deck structures are also intact, including a mast rising some 11 m into the water column. Radiocarbon dating of wood from the wreck provides a date of — A. It has been named "Sinop D" by the Ballard team.

Their project had several goals. They sought to discover whether human habitation sites could be identified on the ancient submerged landscape, they examined the sea-bed for shipwrecks where they found Sinop A-D , to test the hypothesis that the anoxic waters below m would protect shipwrecks from the expected biological attacks on organic components, and to seek data about an ancient trade route between Sinop and the Crimea indicated by terrestrial archaeological remains.

Although Sinop served as a primary trade center in the Black Sea, the wrecks were located west of the trade route predicted by the prevalence of Sinopian ceramics on the Crimean peninsula. On wrecks A-C, mounds of distinctive carrot-shaped shipping jars, called amphorae , were found.

They were of a style associated with Sinop and retained much of their original stacking pattern on the sea floor. The jars may have carried a variety of archetypal Black Sea products such as olive oil, honey, wine or fish sauce but the contents are presently unknown because no artifacts were recovered from any of these wreck sites in The wreck found provided the team with vast information about both the technological changes and trade that occurred in the Black Sea during a period of political, social and economic transition through their study of the ship's construction techniques.

Studies show that in Sinop during the Byzantine era, they had developed long-distance trading as early as BC. The video images of Shipwreck A that were taken show a wall of shipping jars standing about 2 m above the seabed. The amphorae highest on the mound had fallen over without displacing those still standing in the rows beneath them, and it is likely that the ship settled upright on the sea-bed, gradually being both buried in and filled with sediment as exposed wood was devoured by the larva or the shipworm.

Shipwreck B also consisted of a large pile of amphorae but several types are visible, as are multiple timbers protruding from within the mound and on it. In addition to the Sinop-styles jars, several amphorae similar to examples excavated on the Yassiada Byzantine shipwreck and dating from the 5th to late 6th century AD are present.

The team's visit to the site was short and was intended primarily to test survey methodology for deep-water procedures. Shipwreck D provided the team with an unprecedented opportunity to document hull construction during a time of transition.

When observing the sonar signature of Shipwreck D, a long, slender upright feature on the seabed, transformed itself into a wooden mast. Elements rarely present on shallower shipwreck sites are beautifully preserved m below the surface. Disappointingly for ship scholars and historians of technology, there are few indications of how the planks of Sinop D are held together.

There are no mortise and tenon fastenings, and no sewing. Shipwreck D may be one of the earliest lateen -rigged ships to be studied by archaeologists. The Institute for Exploration Black Sea expeditions relied on remote sensing with side-scan sonar in shallow and deep water to identify potential archaeological sites examined by ROVs.

The hypothesis that the anoxic waters of the Black Sea would allow extraordinary organic preservation is borne out by the discovery of Sinop D, the 1,year-old shipwreck with excellent preservation of features above the sediment layer.

According to a report in New Scientist magazine May 4, , p. There was evidence for a strong flow of fresh water out of the Black Sea in the 8th millennium BC. Ballard's research has contributed to the debate over the Black Sea deluge theory. In , Ballard was appointed professor of oceanography , and currently serves as Director of the Institute for Archaeological Oceanography, at the University of Rhode Island 's Graduate School of Oceanography. Ballard served as the technical consultant on the science fiction series seaQuest DSV during its first season from September until May During the closing credits, he would speak about the scientific elements that were present in any given episode and place them in a contemporary context.

Although he exited the series in the second season, he was referenced in the third season, with the "Ballard Institute" being named after him.

In , Ballard founded the JASON Project , a distance education program designed to excite and engage middle school students in science and technology.

He began the JASON Project in response to the thousands of letters he received from students following his discovery of the wreck of the Titanic. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retired US Navy officer and a professor of oceanography known for maritime archaeology and archaeology of shipwrecks. For other people named Robert Ballard, see Robert Ballard disambiguation.

Wichita, Kansas , U. Underwater diving portal. Retrieved 27 Apr Associated Press. June 23, Retrieved Robert Ballard". Archived from the original on Bibcode : Sci Retrieved 7 January The Times. National Geographic.

Would Be 'a Dream ' ". New York Times. Retrieved September 2, Merriam Press. Navy Confirms". University of Rhode Island. Archived from the original on 26 June Retrieved 17 March Kotovschichkov, B.

Laiou ed. University of Bath. Retrieved 18 February Ballard, Ph.

Project Y - Wikipedia

He discovered the wreck of John F. In , Ballard graduated from the University of California, Santa Barbara , earning undergraduate degrees in chemistry and geology. His first graduate degree MS , was in geophysics from the University of Hawaii 's Institute of Geophysics where he trained porpoises and whales. Ballard was working towards a Ph.

Upon his request, he was transferred from the Army into the US Navy as an oceanographer. Four years later he received a Ph. He was designated as an intelligence officer and initially received a commission as a second lieutenant in the Army Reserve. When called to active duty in , he asked to fulfill his obligation in the United States Navy. His request was approved, and he was transferred to the Navy Reserve on the reserve active duty list.

After completing his active duty obligation in , he was returned to reserve status, where he remained for much of his military career, being called up only for mandatory training and special assignments. He retired from the Navy as a commander in after reaching the statutory service limit. In summer , he began a field mapping project of the Gulf of Maine for his doctoral dissertation.

It used an air gun that sent sound waves underwater to determine the underlying structure of the ocean floor and the submersible Alvin , which was used to find and recover a sample from the bedrock. During the summer of , Ballard participated in a joint French-American expedition called Phere searching for hydrothermal vents over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge , but the expedition did not find any active vents.

On the Galapagos spreading center east of the islands a exploration by Alvin found deep-sea hydrothermal vents and surrounding biology communities based on chemosynthesis. Ballard was a participating diver. While Ballard had been interested in the sea since an early age, his work at Woods Hole and his scuba diving experiences off Massachusetts spurred his interest in shipwrecks and their exploration.

His work in the Navy had involved assisting in the development of small, unmanned submersibles that could be tethered to and controlled from a surface ship, and were outfitted with lighting, cameras, and manipulator arms. As early as , he saw this as way of searching for the wreck of the Titanic.

In , he led his first expedition, which was unsuccessful. Unbeknownst to some, this trip was financed by the U. However, they were interested in finding out what happened to their missing submarines and ultimately concluded that Argo was their best chance to do so. After the two missions were completed, time and funding permitting, he was free to use resources to hunt for the Titanic. After their missions for the Navy, Knorr arrived on site on August 22, , [9] and deployed Argo.

When they searched for the two submarines, Ballard and his team discovered that they had imploded from the immense pressure at depth. In the early morning hours of September 1, , observers noted anomalies on the otherwise smooth ocean floor.

At first, it was pockmarks, like small craters from impacts. Eventually, debris was sighted as the rest of the team was awakened. Finally, a boiler was sighted, and soon after that, the hull was found. Ballard's team made a general search of the Titanic's exterior, noting its condition. They did not have much time to explore, as others were waiting to take Knorr on other scientific pursuits, but his fame was now assured. He originally planned to keep the exact location a secret to prevent anyone from claiming prizes from it.

He considered the site a cemetery, and refused to desecrate it by removing artifacts. On July 12, , Ballard and his team returned on board Atlantis II [9] to make the first detailed study of the wreck. This time, he brought Alvin. It was accompanied by Jason Junior , a small remotely operated vehicle that could fit through small openings to see into the ship's interior.

The vast majority of the relics retrieved by various groups, not including Ballard, from RMS Titanic were owned by Premier Exhibitions which filed for bankruptcy in In late August , the groups vying for ownership of the 5, relics included one by museums in England and Northern Ireland with assistance from film maker James Cameron and some financial support from National Geographic.

A decision as to the outcome was to be made by a United States district court judge. The 15, foot deep water in which it sank [14] is 4, feet deeper than that where the Titanic sank. He attempted to determine whether it had been sunk by the British or was scuttled by its own crew. Three weeks after the expedition however, personal tragedy struck him when his year-old son, Todd, who had aided him in the search, was killed in a car accident. Ballard later published a book about the quest, The Discovery of the Bismarck The discovery was also documented for National Geographic in a James Cameron video Search for the Battleship Bismarck which indicated that the ship had been damaged by torpedoes and shells from British ships.

Film maker Cameron, however, said that his crew's examination of the wreckage indicated that the Bismarck would have sunk eventually even if it had not been scuttled. It had been struck by a torpedo, whose explosion was followed by a second, much larger one.

The wreck had been depth charged by the Royal Navy several years after the sinking, and had also been damaged by other explorers, making a forensic analysis difficult. He found no evidence of boiler explosion and he speculated the ignition of coal dust inside the ship, caused a "massive, uncontrollable [second] explosion". Ballard found no evidence to support this claim. They succeeded in finding a torpedo tube and the forward section from the shipwreck of John F. Kennedy Library in In the s Ballard founded the Institute for Exploration , which specializes in deep-sea archaeology and deep-sea geology.

It joined forces in with the Mystic Aquarium located in Mystic, Connecticut. They are a part of the non-profit Sea Research Foundation, Inc. In , Willard Bascom suggested that the deep, anoxic waters of the Black Sea might have preserved ships from antiquity because typical wood-devouring organisms could not survive there. Originally a land-locked fresh water lake, the Black Sea was flooded with salt water from the Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene. The influx of salt water essentially smothered the fresh water below it because a lack of internal motion and mixing meant that no fresh oxygen reached the deep waters, [22] creating a meromictic body of water.

The anoxic environment, which is hostile to many biological organisms that destroy wood in the oxygenated waters, provides an excellent testing site for deep water archaeological survey. In a series of expeditions, a team of marine archaeologists led by Ballard identified what appeared to be ancient shorelines, freshwater snail shells, and drowned river valleys in roughly feet m of water off the Black Sea coast of modern Turkey.

Radiocarbon dating of freshwater mollusk remains indicated an age of about 7, years. The team discovered three ancient wrecks to the west of the town of Sinop at depths of m. To the east of Sinop, the team discovered a remarkably well-preserved wreck at a m depth, in the Black Sea's deep anoxic waters.

The vessel's entire hull and cargo are intact, buried in sediments. Its deck structures are also intact, including a mast rising some 11 m into the water column. Radiocarbon dating of wood from the wreck provides a date of — A. It has been named "Sinop D" by the Ballard team. Their project had several goals. They sought to discover whether human habitation sites could be identified on the ancient submerged landscape, they examined the sea-bed for shipwrecks where they found Sinop A-D , to test the hypothesis that the anoxic waters below m would protect shipwrecks from the expected biological attacks on organic components, and to seek data about an ancient trade route between Sinop and the Crimea indicated by terrestrial archaeological remains.

Although Sinop served as a primary trade center in the Black Sea, the wrecks were located west of the trade route predicted by the prevalence of Sinopian ceramics on the Crimean peninsula. On wrecks A-C, mounds of distinctive carrot-shaped shipping jars, called amphorae , were found.

They were of a style associated with Sinop and retained much of their original stacking pattern on the sea floor. The jars may have carried a variety of archetypal Black Sea products such as olive oil, honey, wine or fish sauce but the contents are presently unknown because no artifacts were recovered from any of these wreck sites in The wreck found provided the team with vast information about both the technological changes and trade that occurred in the Black Sea during a period of political, social and economic transition through their study of the ship's construction techniques.

Studies show that in Sinop during the Byzantine era, they had developed long-distance trading as early as BC. The video images of Shipwreck A that were taken show a wall of shipping jars standing about 2 m above the seabed. The amphorae highest on the mound had fallen over without displacing those still standing in the rows beneath them, and it is likely that the ship settled upright on the sea-bed, gradually being both buried in and filled with sediment as exposed wood was devoured by the larva or the shipworm.

Shipwreck B also consisted of a large pile of amphorae but several types are visible, as are multiple timbers protruding from within the mound and on it. In addition to the Sinop-styles jars, several amphorae similar to examples excavated on the Yassiada Byzantine shipwreck and dating from the 5th to late 6th century AD are present.

The team's visit to the site was short and was intended primarily to test survey methodology for deep-water procedures.

Shipwreck D provided the team with an unprecedented opportunity to document hull construction during a time of transition. When observing the sonar signature of Shipwreck D, a long, slender upright feature on the seabed, transformed itself into a wooden mast. Elements rarely present on shallower shipwreck sites are beautifully preserved m below the surface.

Disappointingly for ship scholars and historians of technology, there are few indications of how the planks of Sinop D are held together. There are no mortise and tenon fastenings, and no sewing. Shipwreck D may be one of the earliest lateen -rigged ships to be studied by archaeologists. The Institute for Exploration Black Sea expeditions relied on remote sensing with side-scan sonar in shallow and deep water to identify potential archaeological sites examined by ROVs.

The hypothesis that the anoxic waters of the Black Sea would allow extraordinary organic preservation is borne out by the discovery of Sinop D, the 1,year-old shipwreck with excellent preservation of features above the sediment layer.

According to a report in New Scientist magazine May 4, , p. There was evidence for a strong flow of fresh water out of the Black Sea in the 8th millennium BC. Ballard's research has contributed to the debate over the Black Sea deluge theory.

In , Ballard was appointed professor of oceanography , and currently serves as Director of the Institute for Archaeological Oceanography, at the University of Rhode Island 's Graduate School of Oceanography. Ballard served as the technical consultant on the science fiction series seaQuest DSV during its first season from September until May During the closing credits, he would speak about the scientific elements that were present in any given episode and place them in a contemporary context.

Although he exited the series in the second season, he was referenced in the third season, with the "Ballard Institute" being named after him. In , Ballard founded the JASON Project , a distance education program designed to excite and engage middle school students in science and technology.

He began the JASON Project in response to the thousands of letters he received from students following his discovery of the wreck of the Titanic. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retired US Navy officer and a professor of oceanography known for maritime archaeology and archaeology of shipwrecks.

For other people named Robert Ballard, see Robert Ballard disambiguation.

Robert t argo gay uss

Robert t argo gay uss

Robert t argo gay uss