A board the Hudibras in , in the course of a harrowing journey from Africa to America, a popular woman died in slavery. Yet he did note that her passing caused a minor political tumult when the crew herded the other enslaved women below decks before they could see the body of their fallen shipmate consigned to the water. This woman was no alienated isolate to be hurled over the side of the ship without ceremony. The first to die on that particular voyage, the woman was laid out on the deck while the sailors awaited flood tide to heave her overboard. What happened aboard the Hudibras was an uncommon but not unimportant event.
As a result of its success, social death has become slaveyr handy general definition of slavery, for many historians and non-historians alike. Peons had even less recourse to the law for bad treatment than did indentured servants, and the terms of manumission for the former typically were less favourable than for the latter. They gopic to merge with felons because people in both categories were considered criminals, and that was especially true in societies where money fines were the main sanction and form of restitution for crimes. If Generative topic slavery death did not define the slaves' condition, it did frame their vision slaveryy apocalypse. Slaverycondition in which one human being was owned by another. Sex girls cn Scholar. Death was simply part of the workings of the trade. Human slavery. See especially Peter H.
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Interpersonal relationship. In eight pages debates during the nineteenth century regarding abolishing slavery are examined in Ferige naked debates and writings of Walk In seven pages this paper contrasts and compares these literary works regarding the lasting impressions of the slave experience up In five pages this paper examines the reasons why NJ was the last of the northern states to espouse slave emancipation in a consid Slavery and Religion in Society In eight pages this paper toopic how religion and slavery were able to socially coexist. In Generative topic slavery pages the ways in which the autobiographies of Benjamin Franklin and Frederick Douglass reflect slavery in America are exa Slavery was the prototype Fay wray nude a relationship defined by domination and power. What were the economical, social and political consequences which resulted from the changeover of tobacco to sugarcane Generative topic slavery the 17th Century? Washington, was originally published in the September issue of The Atlantic Monthly. Generatiive by ELmagazine. Virginia and Cuba Slavery In three pages this essay refers to Slavery in the Americas by Herbert Klein in a comparative analysis of how slavery was institut Alyssa Buffenstein.
Slavery , condition in which one human being was owned by another.
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The extreme violence of Atlantic slavery made it a system of fear. From slaving vessels off the coast of Africa to interior regions of the American continents, masters deliberately terrorized enslaved people through whipping, family separation, and rape in attempts to control them.
Out of self-preservation, enslaved people used subtle forms of resistance that could not easily be ascribed to them but about which masters were glancingly aware.
Masters worried that in time, if poison, witchcraft, or arson did not consume them, enslaved people would answer overt violence with overt violence through insurrection. Masters erected legal and policing apparatuses whose wellspring was their own fear and that permitted them within the confines of their homes to terrorize enslaved individuals with impunity.
This bibliography pulls together selected examples of scholarship that addresses this system of fear in slavery.
This bibliography begins with a sampling of conceptual work on the history of emotions in general—a relatively new field—and some exemplary treatments of fear in studies of slavery, race, and power. There is a fundamental tension in how historians conceive of fear and other emotions in the past. Since the s, scholars have viewed emotions alternately as psychological experiences and as culturally constructed performances.
Hartman views bodily torture and trauma as the fundamental experience of slavery, generative of many aspects of African American culture. Dealing with racial ideology rather than individual exercises of power, Silver views a sustained period of violence and fear as an important cause of Anglo-American hatred of Native Americans.
Henneton brings some additional clarity to discussions of fear by insisting on always identifying who feared whom, for taking what actions, and at risk of losing what. This precision illuminates historical specificities of fear. Eustace, Nicole. This work by the leading historian of emotions in early America provides a clear methodology for applying Reddy to 18th-century America.
It examines how those in power promulgated emotional expectations to establish their own social statuses, and it reveals how people could subtly modulate their emotions to subvert the powerful. Hartman, Saidiya. This study of the antebellum and post-slavery US South emphasizes continuities in the oppression and torture of black people.
Even the desire to use clandestine forms of resistance was determined by the terroristic regime. Henneton, Lauric. Edited by Lauric Henneton and L. Roper, 1— Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill, DOI: Prompts scholars to ask who feared whom for potentially doing what, because different segments of societies e. Responses to fear could be either reactive or proactive; either short-term or structural; and either defensive or offensive.
Reddy, William M. A landmark work in the history of emotions but does not address slavery. The French Revolution is the case study. Robin, Corey. Fear: The History of a Political Idea. Lucid explanation of how fear, terror, and anxiety have worked in political settings, from early modern Europe to contemporary America, both at the societal level and between two unequal individuals.
Rosenwein, Barbara H. Generations of Feeling: A History of Emotions, — A cornerstone of emotions history but does not address slavery.
This approach values whole systems of emotions, and even adjacent communities, rather than power politics or hegemonic regimes. The study proceeds from late medieval to early modern Europe. What Is the History of Emotions? A concise and thorough overview. Some emotions historians have begun drawing connections between the human body—particularly pain—and the history of feelings. This chapter provides an overview of this still-nascent scholarship.
Schechter, Ronald. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, A study of political theory and assumptions about human nature that undergirded early modern regimes of slavery.
An intellectual history that demonstrates how early modern Europeans perceived terror to be salutary and uncruel in many respects, at least prior to the French Revolution.
See especially the introduction and chapter 3. Silver, Peter. New York: Norton, A study of race. Although not dealing with slavery, this is an excellent application of taking fear seriously as a historical force in the creation of racial categories and political movements.
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Forgot password? Don't have an account? Sign in via your Institution. Sign in with your library card. Related Articles about About Related Articles close popup. Slavery and Fear by Jason T. Introduction The extreme violence of Atlantic slavery made it a system of fear. The History of Emotions and Conceptual Approaches There is a fundamental tension in how historians conceive of fear and other emotions in the past.
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Frederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobson both write their compelling stories on what life was like as slaves during 19th century America. In some societies slaves were considered movable property, in others immovable property, like real estate. Montreal-based artists premiere a brand new audiovisual exploration into our modern relationship with Mother Earth. Abstract This paper explores the way in which sweatshops, cheap labor, and violation of workers rights continues to exist throughout the wo The serf usually owned his means of production grain, livestock, implements except the land, whereas the slave owned nothing, often not even the clothes on his back.
Generative topic slavery. Finding the Overarching Goals
Slavery , condition in which one human being was owned by another. There is no consensus on what a slave was or on how the institution of slavery should be defined. The slave was a species of property ; thus, he belonged to someone else. In some societies slaves were considered movable property, in others immovable property, like real estate. They were objects of the law, not its subjects.
Thus, like an ox or an ax, the slave was not ordinarily held responsible for what he did. He was not personally liable for torts or contracts. The slave usually had few rights and always fewer than his owner, but there were not many societies in which he had absolutely none.
The slave was removed from lines of natal descent. Legally, and often socially, he had no kin. No relatives could stand up for his rights or get vengeance for him. Slavery was a form of dependent labour performed by a nonfamily member. The slave was deprived of personal liberty and the right to move about geographically as he desired.
There were likely to be limits on his capacity to make choices with regard to his occupation and sexual partners as well.
Slavery was usually, but not always, involuntary. Slaves were generated in many ways. Others were kidnapped on slave-raiding or piracy expeditions. Many slaves were the offspring of slaves.
Some people were enslaved as a punishment for crime or debt, others were sold into slavery by their parents, other relatives, or even spouses, sometimes to satisfy debts, sometimes to escape starvation. A variant on the selling of children was the exposure, either real or fictitious, of unwanted children, who were then rescued by others and made slaves. Another source of slavery was self-sale, undertaken sometimes to obtain an elite position, sometimes to escape destitution.
Slavery existed in a large number of past societies whose general characteristics are well known. It was rare among primitive peoples, such as the hunter-gatherer societies, because for slavery to flourish, social differentiation or stratification was essential.
Also essential was an economic surplus, for slaves were often consumption goods who themselves had to be maintained rather than productive assets who generated income for their owner. Surplus was also essential in slave systems where the owners expected economic gain from slave ownership.
Last, some centralized governmental institutions willing to enforce slave laws had to exist, or else the property aspects of slavery were likely to be chimerical. There have been two basic types of slavery throughout recorded history. Although domestic slaves occasionally worked outside the household, for example, in haying or harvesting, their primary function was that of menials who served their owners in their homes or wherever else the owners might be, such as in military service. Slaves often were a consumption-oriented status symbol for their owners, who in many societies spent much of their surplus on slaves.
Household slaves sometimes merged in varying degrees with the families of their owners, so that boys became adopted sons or women became concubines or wives who gave birth to heirs. Temple slavery, state slavery, and military slavery were relatively rare and distinct from domestic slavery, but in a very broad outline they can be categorized as the household slaves of a temple or the state.
The other major type of slavery was productive slavery. It also was found in 9th-century Iraq , among the Kwakiutl Indians of the American Northwest, and in a few areas of sub-Saharan Africa in the 19th century. Although slaves also were employed in the household, slavery in all of those societies seems to have existed predominantly to produce marketable commodities in mines or on plantations.
A major theoretical issue is the relationship between productive slavery and the status of a society as a slave or a slave-owning society.
It seems clear that it was quite possible for a slave society to exist without productive slavery; the known historical examples were concentrated in Africa and Asia. Slavery was the prototype of a relationship defined by domination and power. But throughout the centuries man has invented other forms of dependent labour besides slavery, including serfdom , indentured labour, and peonage.
The term serfdom is much overused, often where it is not appropriate always as an appellation of opprobrium. Canonically, serfdom was the dependent condition of much of the western and central European peasantry from the time of the decline of the Roman Empire until the era of the French Revolution.
Whether the term serfdom appropriately describes the condition of the peasantry in other contexts is a matter of vigorous contention. Be that as it may, the serf was also distinguished from the slave by the fact that he was usually the subject of the law—i. The serf usually owned his means of production grain, livestock, implements except the land, whereas the slave owned nothing, often not even the clothes on his back.
A person became an indentured servant by borrowing money and then voluntarily agreeing to work off the debt during a specified term. In some societies indentured servants probably differed little from debt slaves i.
Debt slaves, however, were regarded as criminals essentially thieves and thus liable to harsher treatment. Perhaps as many as half of all the white settlers in North America were indentured servants, who agreed to work for someone the purchaser of the indenture upon arrival to pay for their passage. Peons were either persons forced to work off debts or criminals. Peons, who were the Latin American variant of debt slaves, were forced to work for their creditors to pay off what they owed.
They tended to merge with felons because people in both categories were considered criminals, and that was especially true in societies where money fines were the main sanction and form of restitution for crimes. Thus, the felon who could not pay his fine was an insolvent debtor.
The debt peon had to work for his creditor, and the labour of the criminal peon was sold by the state to a third party. Peons had even less recourse to the law for bad treatment than did indentured servants, and the terms of manumission for the former typically were less favourable than for the latter.
Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Historical survey Slave-owning societies Slave societies Slavery in the Americas The international slave trade Ways of ending slavery The law of slavery Sources of slavery law Legal definitions of slavery Master-slave legal relationships Family and property Legal relationships between slave owners Legal relationships between slaves and free strangers Laws of manumission The sociology of slavery The slave as outsider Attitudes toward slavery: the matter of race Slave occupations Agriculture Slave demography Slave protest Slave culture.
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