In Puerto Rico, these standards, which are considered to be correct, are something that we live with, consciously and subconsciously. We find them to be accurate when really, they're just social constructs. Our goal was and is to show women that they are beautiful just the way they are, to let them know that they are the ones who decide if they want to follow the standards or not, and to empower them. We wanted to show women that it's their choice. It is also an effort to create awareness of mental health issues caused by negative self and body image.
Kurlansky, M. Lancaster, R. In the case of Puerto Rico, an Puerto rican facial as diverse as it does show the conflicts between imposed beauty standards and the reality of the people. United States. Why is this important? New York Affairs, 1 4 Social Science Quarterly, 73, Ramos, R.
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Geared toward educating psychologists, this review discusses how various psychological issues associated with phenotype may have arisen as a result of historical legacies and policies associated with race and racial mixing.
Keywords: Puerto Rican; phenotype; skin color; historical trauma; caste system D espite popular claims to the contrary, among Latinos, race can be a divi- sive and hegemonic tool often used to assign privilege and status.
From a psychological perspective, it is impor- tant to understand the historical underpinnings of phenotype because racial appearance has often served as a marker for power, and current research indicates that disempowerment, due to historical trauma, can affect psy- chological functioning.
With this in mind, this text presents a Latino-centric, multidisciplinary, and historical review of Puerto Rican phenotype geared toward educating psy- chologists about the potential psychological issues related to phenotype. This type of review is needed because previous research on Latino phenotype has typically only cited the social history of African Americans in the continental United States e.
A few caveats are required before we begin. First, because the primary goal of this text is to underscore the psychological importance of phenotype, it relies exclusively on secondary, and not primary, historical sources. Additionally, although the historical section of this text is arranged in chronological order, this is not meant to either prioritize the contributions of one ethnic or racial group over another, or to imply that racial mixing occurred in a necessarily ordered and stepwise sequence.
Instead, racial mixing was, and continues to be, an ongoing process in Puerto Rico, as in other parts of Latin America. However, the archaeological evidence supporting these descriptions is limited.
Specifically, only a few of these physical descriptors, such as those regarding the structural composition of the face i. Thus, there is currently insufficient evidence to completely validate these descriptions.
In fact, when critically scrutinized, these early testimonials, which come mainly from the first male Europeans to colonize the Island e. Additionally, among disenfranchised and mar- ginalized groups, it may indicate the need to be valorized and considered exotic. We must, therefore, question these unexamined sine qua non standards of beauty, authenticity, and group membership. As a result, after a century of colonization, Puerto Rico had approximately twice as many Spanish men than Spanish women Rogler, However, racial mixing between Spanish men and Indian women continued to occur even after the migration of Spanish women to Puerto Rico, and so these unions must have occurred for a variety of reasons.
For example, Indian women were often bartered as objects, sometimes by their own tribes, as a way to establish tribal ties with the Spanish. Equally disconcerting, however, is that these unions often occurred because Spanish men simply willed them to occur. Hence, although in some cases these unions may have been the result of simple attraction, the absence of female testimonials concerning these relations, and their docu- mented coercive nature, suggests that many of these early instances of racial mixing occurred indiscriminately because of differences in power.
Still, in some instances lighter skin may have been a factor in sexual conquest. Racial Mixing Between the Spanish and Africans To compensate for such a loss of labor, the Spanish imported African slaves to Puerto Rico, which resulted in the racial mixing between the African, Spanish, and Indian populations.
However, the majority of the imported African slaves did not come from Spain Migden Socolow, In fact, many slave- holders considered it their right to have sexual liaisons with their slaves, despite believing that slaves were heathens and comparable to animals McD. Therefore, race mixing with Africans, as with the Indian population, occurred mainly because of differences in power.
Similarly, some scholars have proposed that European colonizers sexually preferred lighter skinned African women over darker skinned women McD. However, although variations in skin color may have played only a minor role in sexual selection, the intersectionality of race and gender did dictate and limit the fea- sibility of certain relationships.
For instance, racial mixing probably did not occur frequently between Spanish women and African men because of the severe punishments reserved for such unions. Specifically, if a Spanish woman was ever suspected of such a union she would be heavily ostracized, whereas an African male would either be castrated, dismembered, or killed by execu- tion McD.
These differences clearly reveal the privi- leges and punishments that have historically been afforded to race. Racial Mixing Between Africans, Indians, and Others Some scholars have also argued that racial mixing between Africans and Indians did not occur with great frequency because of the restrictions placed on both groups by the Spanish Migden Socolow, Unfortunately, information regarding the unions of these two marginalized groups is sparse Allaire, ; Stark, This system codified the rights of Whites over non-Whites, or lower castas, and delineated what racially mixed people could own, their choice of profession, and even what they could wear Bost, ; Diggs, ; Kinsbruner, ; Migden Socolow, At the top of this caste were the blancos, or Whites, who had greater priv- ileges if they were penisulares, or Whites born in Spain, followed by criol- los, who were Whites born in the colonies e.
These groups were followed by the free people of color, or gente de color, who were typically lighter skinned than slaves Kinsbruner, Finally, there were the African slaves, who were commonly referred to as negros, who occupied the lowest rank of the caste system Kinsbruner, Within various countries, there were also geographic differences in the rate of racial mixing Lancaster, For instance, some scholars have maintained that in Puerto Rico the greatest rates of racial mixing occurred in the coastal towns and in the lowland valleys because this is where the sugar plantations, or haciendas, were located Santiago-Valles, ; Scarano, In support of this, according to the U.
Census Bureau, Taken together, these findings indicate that although racial mix- ing occurred throughout the Island, there are areas in Puerto Rico that have higher concentrations of particular racial groups. Authenticity was, therefore, in part, contingent on place.
This may help explain why, for example, mainland Puerto Ricans are not always fully accepted as authentic Puerto Rican because they were born in continental United States and not in Puerto Rico. However, as the jibaro example demonstrates, authenticity was also con- tingent on race.
This is because racial classifications were at times dependent on the context and motives of the people seeking and doing the classifications Castleman, ; Twinam, In this manner, some racial classifications could be changed.
For example, in Puerto Rico, poor Whites who either married or lived free with persons of color were at times counted as colored by Spanish Census takers Kinsbruner, Limpiezas de sangre A further example that underscored the malleability of racial classifica- tions was limpiezas de sangre. For White women, it usually guaranteed their entrance into a convent, which could provide them a safe haven and economic refuge. Additionally, blood purity guaranteed that their marriages would be officially sanctioned by the Church Migden Socolow, ; Sereno, This was important because marriage, like the convent, was an institution that guaranteed White women a number of economic and social benefits because it bestowed inher- itance, lineage, and legitimacy, which were variables typically associated with racial purity Hall, For non-White women, lacking blood purity could also have a number of consequences.
In particular, with the rare exception of the occasional convents that were set aside for mestizas, lacking blood purity meant that these women could serve only as servants or slaves in convents. As with the caste system, and limpiezas de sangre, the policy of adelan- tando la raza was instituted primarily to protect the rights of Whites. Marriage, in fact, was very uncommon between White men and non-White women Kinsbruner, ; Migden Socolow, ; Stavig, The fate of their enslaved offspring was also uncertain because, although Spanish fathers could, in theory, purchase the freedom of their children Diggs, ; Klein, , in practice, legal recognition of paternity was not common Migden Socolow, Additionally, there was nothing preventing these fathers from later reselling their children back into slavery.
In short, various laws constrained racial mixing, and the social consequences of these unions differed by race and, sometimes, gender.
Contextual Factors and Racial Classification Although with time la sistema de castas, limpiezas de sangre, and ade- lantando la raza were eventually abandoned, these policies continued to inform race relations in Latin America.
Theory of Racial Democracy Because of the importance of contextual factors, many early scholars have argued that, in Latin America, SES superseded race as a classifying variable and that the effects attributed to phenotype were secondary consequences of class-based hierarchies Blanco, ; Bonilla-Silva, ; Rogler, In Puerto Rico, for example, race relations were assumed to be different because the sugar economy occurred on a much smaller scale than in other Caribbean nations i.
The slave population in Puerto Rico was also smaller than in other Latin American countries, and this supposedly resulted in reduced racial hostility compared to other parts of the world Gordon, ; Mathews, The same argument contended that following the abo- lition of slavery in , people of color in Puerto Rico allegedly experienced less discrimination than those in continental United States.
In short, Puerto Rico was not a racial paradise. Phenotype Under American Rule The legacies associated with phenotype and race did not disappear once slavery was abolished.
Instead, as a result of the War of , when Spain ceded Puerto Rico to the United States, as mandated by the Treaty of Paris, some scholars argued that the United States became another colonial power that used race to assign rights and privileges. Other scholars have also argued that the suspected racial background of Puerto Ricans, in part, explained why Puerto Ricans were initially denied full American citizenship once colonized Nieto-Phillips, ; Perea, ; Rivera Ramos, Aware of this perception, some Puerto Rican leaders purposely championed the myth of White racial supremacy, in order to justify granting American citizenship to the inhabitants of Puerto Rico Perea, Hence, even though citizenship had been extended to African Americans in , at the time Blackness was an identity that was highly undesirable for future American citizens Nieto-Phillips, For example, although Puerto Ricans residing on the Island were not racially segregated by law, once they migrated to continental United States, they were sub- jected to many of the restrictions faced by people of color.
For example, once in the Army, Puerto Ricans were racially segregated into White or Negro troops, depending on how their phenotype was evaluated Betances, ; Duany, ; Gordon, ; Kinsbruner, ; Mathews, ; Sereno, Yet, as in colonial Spain, racial designation in the United States could at times be contradictory.
For instance, it was not unusual for some Puerto Ricans, who were classified as White on their Puerto Rican birth certifi- cates, to be later racially recategorized as Blacks once they arrived in the United States.
Rivera-Mosquera, personal commu- nication, March 20, or of some parents being asked by local author- ities in the United States to provide identification to prove that they are the parents of their lighter skinned children L. Lopez, personal communica- tion, May 1, American authorities also made futile and contradictory attempts to segregate Puerto Rican schoolchildren based on skin color Longres, Jr. Such differences in treatment led a number of early scholars to conclude that racism occurred only after the American occupation of Puerto Rico Blanco, ; Longres, Jr.
Thus, although it may not be precise to say that Puerto Ricans were not aware of racial differences before their arrival in the United States, once Puerto Ricans arrived in continental United States, they were confronted with a system that seemed unable to acknowledge them as a single, but racially diverse, ethnic group. As psychologists, it is therefore not unusual to hear from Puerto Rican clients that others perceived them in radically different ways from how they perceived themselves. Conclusions From a psychological perspective, it is important to know such detailed historical information regarding racial classifications, and the laws that dic- tated and qualified entrance into these tiers, because it lets us know the status that was historically accorded to each group and how this legacy, as a result of the historical traumas associated with colonization and slavery, continues to affect the lives of modern-day Puerto Ricans.
For example, since the time of the American settlement, much has been written about phenotype. There is also an increasing literature on phenotype modification among Latinos, such as the use of bleaching creams, hair dyes, or colored eye con- tacts Hall, ; Ruiz, Given the historical importance of race, phenotype is an important variable that must be considered when under- standing the mental health of Puerto Ricans.
In particular, psychologists must be aware of the past historical legacies associated with race and how historical traumas related to race have left an indelible mark on the present lives of Puerto Ricans.
Note 1. Some historians believe that the first Africans arrived in Puerto Rico with either Columbus in or Ponce de Leon in , the first governor of Puerto Rico, whereas oth- ers argue that slavery had already been in practice between West African traders and indige- nous groups in the Americas prior to Columbus see Palmer, , for further discussion.
Historia de nuestros indios [History of our Indians]. Allaire, L. Some comments on the ethnic identity of the Taino-Carib frontier. Auger, M. Glass, S.
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A friend invited me for a spa day, including massage with mani-pedi. It began with a sauna and I wanted this to be the highlight of my solo trip to Puerto Rico. It looks and smells lovely but in Mariangely took care of my face with a hydrating facial.
The best ever. My skin felt super hydrated. I'm planning to return for a massage and body treatment Julie did my nails, mani and Pedi and did an amazing job considering my feet were a disaster. Yes the seating for the pedicure is a bit uncomfortable but is worth it. Ideally located in beach town of Dorado. Excellent facilities and great staff for a perfect spa day. I went with my husband to get a day of spa including a couple massage but the treatment of the massage girls was very much unprofessional and the massage was terrible.
The are for pedicure is not as expected from a spa. Do not have good seating area and you may end up with a back pain. Staff is friendly and they do the best with the resources they have. We're sorry to read that you were less than thrilled. Hope to see you back in soon! The massage and facial were great and the attendants were very friendly butThe showers were dirty and the "spa pedicure" and manicure were the worst I've ever had.
Hi Myrna. We know every time you visit us you have a great experience of relaxation and good service. We are grateful that you took your time for the comments regarding your last visit, this have been taken in consideration to continue offering the best quality of service to our clients. Hope to see you soon on your next visit! This is my third time at this place and it's a great experience The staff is friendly and give an extra mile to make you feel welcome Prices are affordable.
Hi, Aida! I'm thrilled that you enjoyed all three of your visits with us and that you felt relaxed and welcome. We loved having you and can't wait to welcome you back in soon for visit 4! Looking forward to it, Isis. Flights Vacation Rentals Restaurants Things to do. Profile JOIN. Log in to get trip updates and message other travelers. Best facial ever - Nouvelle D'Spa. Nouvelle D'Spa. Road KM 8. Review Highlights.
Reviewed December 21, Reviewed October 24, Best facial ever. Review of Nouvelle D'Spa. Date of experience: September See all 33 reviews. Quick View. Gilligan's Island Day Trip. Reviews Write a review. Filter reviews. Traveler rating. Excellent Very good 7. Average 5. Poor 2. Terrible 3. Traveler type. Time of year. Language All languages. All languages. English Spanish 4. See what travelers are saying:. Selected filters. Updating list Reviewed June 27, Tranquil surroundings for soothing massages.
Date of experience: June Ask Barranquitas about Nouvelle D'Spa. Thank Barranquitas. Enid D. Reviewed April 25, Not a good experience. Date of experience: May Thank Enid D. Reviewed November 25, Pedicure area very uncomfortable.
Date of experience: October Thank TM Report response as inappropriate Thank you. We appreciate your input. Myrna P. Reviewed June 21, via mobile Not the best. Aida D. Reviewed June 7, via mobile Great experience. Previous Next 1 2 3 4 … 6. TripAdvisor LLC is not responsible for content on external web sites. Taxes, fees not included for deals content. About Us Help Center. United States.