I have found that looking at Buddhist icons after lectures on the Renaissance and Baroque is an effective way to underscore the similarities rather than the dissimilarities between two seemingly disparate cultures. The primary thrust of this lecture is the methods through which Buddhism was transmitted throughout Southeast Asia and into the Tibetan Plateau. The material culture of Indian Buddhism played a primary role in the dissemination of Buddhist ideology and practice. The lecture includes material prior to the traditional time period of a Survey II lecture. In order to establish precedence for the creation of large architectural devotional sites, the student will be introduced to Borobudur in Indonesia.
World Christian Database. Key questions for the lecture : How do Claire mccardell models objects from Buddhism illustrate the main tenets of the faith for the practitioner? Collecting Guide: 5 things to know about South asian buddha image The ornately iamge toggles were once an integral part of Japanese fashion. In this respect, Funan Buddhist statues can be considered the first religious art in Southeast Asia. Interestingly, however, no draperies are expressed in Funan statues, only the collar and the end of the garment. The Bayon is complex, mysterious, and was never finished. Angkor is a region of Cambodia that served as the seat of the Khmer Empire, which flourished from approximately the ninth to the fifteenth centuries.
Whore cumming. Navigation menu
Vairocana Imag middle figure A similar stone pensive statue found in Silla territory and a head with a similar crown excavated at Hwangnyongsa South asian buddha image an origin in Silla. Additionally, the art of the steppes, particularly Siberian and Scythian influences, are evident in early Korean Buddhist art based on the excavation of artifacts and burial goods such as Silla royal crownsbelt buckles, daggers, and zsian gogok. Celebrities speak about virginia tech shootings all scholars accept these theories, however. Ajeet is a Punjabi fiction writer and a well-known public intellectual. Author House. Buddhist texts. The Silla Kingdom, backed by the powerful Tang Empire, defeated the Baekje Kingdom in and the Goguryeo Kingdom in and ended centuries of budrha warfare in Korea. They should work South asian buddha image. A second area of artistic production is associated with Mathura, a city that still stands to the south of Delhi. Shimada and J. Mentioned in April 17,Washington Post.
This image is no longer for sale.
- Buddhist art is the artistic practices that are influenced by Buddhism.
- The visual metaphor of the railings that separate the Buddha from the street begins to speak to me like an actor of a Brechtian epic theatre, where the structures and streets all become part of the drama.
Buddhist sculptures conveyed through that channel became the foundation for early Buddhist art in Southeast Asia. Hence, Buddhist art forms must have spread to Southeast Asia by different routes. Certain sculptures that were recently excavated in Shandong have no traces of drapery and have slender physical outlines. In addition to the Silk Road, which ran along the countries bordering Western China, and the overland route along the Central Asian countries, the southern sea route was important with regard to cultural diffusion.
Whereas the Silk Road ran along the countries in the oasis zone, such as Khotan and Turfan, the southern sea route stretched to China via Southeast Asia. Unlike the Silk Road, the southern sea route has not been well investigated. In addition, scholars must address highly fluid situations in the ancient ports in Southeast Asia that were located along the southern sea route.
The overland route and the Silk Road began to develop during the Han dynasty. Therefore, overland trade was gradually replaced by sea trade. The transport of goods using sea routes was involved with the transport of human resources. Many Buddhist pilgrims visiting India accompanied caravans along the Silk Road. Likewise, many pilgrims accompanied sea merchants throughout the sea routes.
Faxian, a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, took a merchant vessel when returning from his pilgrimage to India in Monks were allowed to accompany sea traders for religious reasons, but they could become human sacrifices when there was a need to calm the sea. Their pilgrimages involved passing along religious information and bringing souvenirs or gifts, such as sculptures and figurines.
During this period, shipbuilding was not sufficiently advanced, and vessels had to sail near the coast, stopping at many ports for supplies and fuel. Thus, many Southeast Asian ports assumed highly significant roles along the route Sen , — Prior to the sixth century, many large and small Southeast Asian city-states were located along the major sea route Choi , 42—48; Chandler , 13— It is noteworthy that Funan, in what is now Cambodia, held sway in the early period.
Around that time, many countries, such as Banban, Lankasuka, Panpan, and Kantary, rose and fell Chandler , Therefore, it is important to attempt to restore the "ancient" through remains and artefacts. Funan, the first ancient country in Southeast Asia, appears to have played a pivotal role in the sea trade route between India and China until the early sixth century Choi , That is, Funan might have functioned as a means of spreading Indian and Western cultures to China in early times.
Artwork found in Funan shows the vestiges of active trade, and the religious arts, in particular, demonstrate the introduction of Indian culture Kang That site is now part of Vietnam, but it was once part of Funan. Indian immigrants had spread Buddhism to Funan by the third century, but it was only in the fifth century that Buddhist art began to be produced there. These areas currently belong to Thailand, Cambodia, and Malaysia; however, these boundaries did not exist during the ancient period.
Current national boundaries and territories were established only after World War II. The sculptures I consider are scattered over a broad area across several countries and are considered to belong to the Funan style Funan art. Because modern Cambodia is not a direct successor of Funan, there are no political undertones in this study. Regarding the sea route between India and China, the Kra Isthmus—the narrowest region in the Malay Peninsula—was used as a shortcut during the time when marine transportation was not well developed.
Merchants and mariners used the Isthmus rather than sailing the rough southern tip of the Malay Peninsula because it reduced distance and time. When they reached the Kra Isthmus, they took the land route to pass through the Isthmus and then reboarded the ship. This practice indicates the importance of the Kra Isthmus, and the country that ruled this narrow region was able to dominate the sea trade. Funan must have dominated the sea trade with its solid ships and strong navy.
The Kra Isthmus is relevant here because the Buddhist sculptures that were found in southern Vietnam and around the Kra Isthmus—as well as the parts of the Malay Peninsula that are part of present-day southern Thailand—may have been produced in Funan. Few Buddhist statues from the period I discuss have survived, and those that have survived are spread over many countries in Southeast Asia. I therefore regard Funan as representative of Buddhist art in Southeast Asia from that period of history.
Art activities began when Indian culture was introduced in Funan after the Bronze Age. Buddhist and Hindu art were the typical types of art Takash a, 11— In this respect, Funan Buddhist statues can be considered the first religious art in Southeast Asia. Despite its historic and artistic value, there have been few studies on Funan religious art. It is problematic to refer to Funan in relation to statues discovered in different countries.
If the few records in stelae are the only literary sources that remain, it is necessary to establish an art-historical standard based on art styles. Regarding Indian Buddhist art, the history of art styles has been recorded comparatively well.
Thus, the chronological record should be based on a comparison with Indian Buddhist art. Considering the lack of records and texts, it is necessary to compare this record with Indian statues rather than to depend on vague presumptions. The earliest Buddhist sculptures produced in Southeast Asia date from around the seventh century, and studies on earlier religious sculptures are lacking.
Excavated Hindu statues outnumber Buddhist statues, implying that Hinduism developed earlier than Buddhism in the area. In any case, relatively few religious statues were produced during that time in Southeast Asia. Some scholars assume that early statues were modelled on Indian ones and were made of tractable materials, such as clay or wood, and thus could not be preserved over time Takash b, The use of clay and wood enabled the advancement of sculpting and the fabrication of bronze and stone statues.
Clay and wood were preferred because they were easily acquired. The problem is that sculpting with clay and wood is markedly different from using bronze, which undermines the opinion that the use of clay and wood enabled the advancement of bronze sculpting. Some were damaged, but some remained intact. In particular, a wooden Buddhist statue found in Go Thap in P'ong Tuk should be considered the first example of religious art in Southeast Asia.
The standing statue with both ankles visible below the garment was assumed to have been created in the fifth century see Figure 1 Khoo , The surface is cracked and warped, so it is difficult to determine its original shape. Coedes, a prominent scholar who laid the foundations for the study of Southeast Asia, believed the wooden statue was sculpted in the Amaravati style Coedes , 16— This style is characterised by a bare right shoulder and a narrow pleated garment with the hem falling above the ankles.
However, given the condition of the statue, one can see only the body proportions with no stylistic details. Coedes must have determined the statue was modelled after the Amaravati style by considering the influence from southern India, not by actually comparing the styles. The Gandhara style was completely different from the Amaravati style. Coedes' claim, therefore, seems unreliable.
Another example is a Buddhist statue preserved in the An Giang Museum. However, the statue was too damaged to define its style, similar to the case described above.
Figure 1. It is 1. Early Buddhist statues in Southeast Asia are usually dated to the sixth and seventh centuries, but this statue is assumed to have been made in the early sixth century due to the even bodyline and erect posture with bilateral symmetry. The garment is not clearly visible, but it seems that the right shoulder is bare because the lower drapery appears lopsided.
The draperies are hardly visible on the cracked surface, and the hem of the left sleeve comes down to the ankles, which is similar to the Southern Indian style. However, the image has little volume because it was made of wood. Buddha, fifth century, wood, Binh Dinh, Vietnam Buddhist statues made in Southeast Asia are usually characterised by a bare right shoulder.
This feature is known to have originated in Sri Lanka and Southern India. However, not all Buddhist statues produced in Southeast Asia have bare right shoulders.
Statues with garments covering both shoulders have been found quite often in Southeast Asia. Such images have primarily been found in inland areas and are remarkably similar to Indian statues. When these sculptures were produced, Funan was part of the city-state federation. Although the statues belong to Funan in a broad sense, they were not found in specific regions. Buddhist statues have been found sporadically in the southland of Vietnam, the Malay Peninsula that falls under the territory of Thailand, and Angkor Borei in Cambodia.
These areas were likely to have been part of the territory of Funan in its prime. After Zhenla the former name of Cambodia encroached on the territory of Funan in the mid-sixth century, large and small countries rose and fell there Kang The Influx of Sarnath-Style in China 45 Among the Funan Buddhist statues, the early ones all have round neck garments covering both shoulders like a Greek tunic. In India, Buddhist sculptures with round necks began during the Kushan dynasty and were influenced by Greek and Roman cultures.
This type of Buddhist sculpture, which was primarily produced in northwestern India, influenced third-century sculptures at Mathura in Central India. As a result, round-neck statues were found in Mathura along with statues with bare right shoulders. During the Gupta dynasty, round-neck Buddhist sculptures were made throughout Central India see Figure 3.
This type of Buddhist statue found in Mathura is characterised by mechanically repeated U- shaped narrow draperies. Interestingly, however, no draperies are expressed in Funan statues, only the collar and the end of the garment. These characteristics are not observed in statues from Mathura during the Gupta dynasty.
A seated Buddha at the National Museum of Korea while starkly different from its chronological counterpart, the Kunsu-ri seated Buddha from Baekje, in style shows that both kingdoms were adopting this new approach to seated figures. While never the official religion of the court, Buddhism enjoyed a resurgence and many of the temples and statues that are seen in Korea today were built from the 17th century onward. The popularization of Buddhism in China has made the country home to one of the richest collections of Buddhist arts in the world. The … literary writer should not drift away from the main form of conflict that always challenges society and individuals to find solutions. A type of iconography found in China or Japan is the baby Buddha pointing one arm in the air and another to the earth which illustrates that nothing in the heaven or earth was like the Buddha. Additionally, the image is clear evidence that statues could move beyond national borders to neighboring states. Seated Buddha, Goguryeo, second half of 6th century.
South asian buddha image. Robert D. DeCaroli
Buddhist Art and Architecture in Southeast Asia After | Art History Teaching Resources
I have found that looking at Buddhist icons after lectures on the Renaissance and Baroque is an effective way to underscore the similarities rather than the dissimilarities between two seemingly disparate cultures. The primary thrust of this lecture is the methods through which Buddhism was transmitted throughout Southeast Asia and into the Tibetan Plateau. The material culture of Indian Buddhism played a primary role in the dissemination of Buddhist ideology and practice.
The lecture includes material prior to the traditional time period of a Survey II lecture. In order to establish precedence for the creation of large architectural devotional sites, the student will be introduced to Borobudur in Indonesia. The Rubin Museum of Himalayan Art is an excellent resource and includes links to other sites. The Metropolitan Museum of Art provides information on a former exhibition that explains how Vajrayana the form of Buddhism in Tibet ritual practices contributed to reshaping the complex religious landscape of Tibet.
Key questions for the lecture : How do the objects from Buddhism illustrate the main tenets of the faith for the practitioner? What role did the trade routes play in the dissemination of Buddhism and the subsequent evolution of the image of Buddha and the Buddhist deities? How was the visual culture of Buddhism influenced by the native cultures into which it was introduced?
For a review of the origins of Buddhism and signs and symbols of the visual culture, please review the Buddhist lecture posted in Survey I lectures. Timeline : c. In one hour and fifteen-minute lecture you should be able to cover the following:.
Begin with a review of who the Buddha was and what Buddhism is. The historical Buddha is Siddhartha b. A Buddha is a being that has achieved Enlightenment the ability to understand the true nature of all things and has been released from samsara birth, disease, death, decay.
This knowledge is known as the Four Noble Truths , which is referred to as the dharma or the Buddhist law :. Once Siddhartha achieved Enlightenment and became known as the Buddha he was asked to share his knowledge of the Four Noble Truths with his followers. The Pala Dynasty eighth—twelfth century ushered in a period of stability and prosperity in the Bengal-Bihar region.
The name comes from the suffix — pala , which means protector an honorific name also given to all of its rulers. In addition, Buddhist pilgrims, monks, and students from all over Asia flocked to the holy sites connected with the life of the Buddha and to the numerous Buddhist monasteries and universities. When they returned home, these travelers brought Pala-period Buddhism and art with them in the form of manuscripts, small sculptures, drawings, and other portable imagery.
In the Seated Buddha Earth Touching Gesture late ninth or early tenth century we see a stele of the Buddha at the moment of Enlightenment. How do we know this is an image of the Buddha? Sculptures like this were placed into niches in the Buddhist temples in order to aid meditational practice.
The Buddha resides in the upper portion of a two tiered stele flanked by two attendant figures. He makes the earth touching gesture mudra with his right hand that signifies his Enlightenment and his left hand makes a gesture of mediation. All three figures have halos signifying Enlightenment.
Above their heads is the canopy of the Bodhi tree under which the Buddha achieved Enlightenment in Bodh Gaya. In the lower portion of the stele, the earthly realm, we see lions Buddha is from the lion shakya clan hence the name of Shakyamuni Buddha.
A small figure of a devotee is in the lower right. In the First Sermon , late tenth or early eleventh century Buddha is again seated in full lotus on a lotus throne. Here he makes the teaching gesture. This moment is known as turning the wheel of the law the Buddhist law or dharma , the moment when Buddha sends his teaching of the Four Noble Truths out to his followers. He is again portrayed in the two tiered stele, as was typical of Pala sculpture, with deer depicted in the earthly realm.
The deer flank a wheel cakra underscoring the gesture that Buddha makes above where he turns the wheel of the law. The Palas followed the Mahayanist Greater Vehicle tradition. The ideology of the Mahayanists is rooted in the teachings of the historical Buddha, but seeks salvation for all beings.
This attitude is embodied in the idea of the bodhisattva, whose outstanding quality is compassion. A bodhisattva is an enlightened being who has achieved Buddhahood, but chooses to remain in the temporal world to assist others. The Pala Dynasty produced an abundance of statues and thang kas cloth paintings of bodhisattvas. While many of the statues of the Buddha were made out of the black schist as seen in the two previous images, many of the sculptures of the bodhisattvas were cast in bronze and made to be portable.
Visitors to the Pala monasteries would carry them back to their homes to aid new adherents in understanding the Buddhist dharma. Monks would also take them to Tibet in order to spread the dharma and assist with the conversion of Tibetans to Buddhism. Avalokiteshvara Chenrezig in Tibetan sits in half-lotus, which is typical for seated bodhisattvas—underscoring that these deities live half in the earthly realm and half in the Enlightened world. He sits on a lotus throne, but has one extended leg so he can quickly rise and come to the aid of a practitioner in need.
The Buddha, in contrast, unless he is standing, is always depicted in full lotus. The bodhisattvas also retain the remnants of their worldly possessions and are depicted wearing heavy jewelry and beautiful, ornate clothing. The Buddha is shown with the stretched earlobes that are empty of the royal jewels he renounced when he began his quest for an end to samsara. He also wears a simple monks garment. Buddhists believe that the Buddhas and bodhisattvas reside on Mt.
Meru , the sacred mountain considered to be the center of all the physical, metaphysical, and spiritual universes. The image of a mountain figures prominently in Buddhist art and architecture as well as in the ritual practice. Thousands make a pilgrimage to Mt. Kailash in Tibet, following a tradition going back thousands of years.
Pilgrims from several religions believe that circumambulating Mount Kailash on foot is a holy ritual that will bring good fortune. Thang kas cloth paintings of the Buddha and bodhisattvas, particularly Avalokiteshvara, are hung to aid the pilgrims in their journey. Some believe that the ritual walk around Kailash should be made in a single day, but a person in good shape could take perhaps fifteen hours to complete the fifty-two-kilometer trek. Doing this requires at least four weeks of physical endurance to perform the circumambulation around the mountain.
In , four years before the Cultural Revolution, the Chinese banned all pilgrimage here although devotees still circled it secretly and only in were the first Tibetans and Indians permitted to return. Tibetan Buddhism is known as Vajrayana, the indestructible vehicle a vajra is a diamond or a thunderbolt.
It is also referred to as mantrayana or incantation vehicle. In Vajrayana, the means to Enlightenment is available to all and is expedited through rituals such as the pilgrimage and circumambulation, as well as through the recitation of mantras.
Mantras are sacred syllables, words, or group of words believed by some to have psychological and spiritual power when it is audible, visible, or present in thought. Pilgrims chant mantras as they circumambulate Mount Kailash and also may carve them on the rocks. Many pilgrims carry prayer wheels , which contain tiny pieces of paper on which mantras, or blessings, are written. Monasteries also install large prayer drums for a similar purpose. The path is indicated by the next four syllables.
Mani, meaning jewel, symbolizes the factors of method: the altruistic intention to become enlightened, compassion, and love. The two syllables, padme, meaning lotus, symbolize wisdom […]. Purity must be achieved by an indivisible unity of method and wisdom, symbolized by the final syllable hum, which indicates indivisibility […].
Thus the six syllables, om mani padme hum, mean that […] you can transform your impure body, speech, and mind into the pure exalted body, speech, and mind of a Buddha […].
By the time Vajrayana was adopted by Tibet the ideology had become increasingly complex. Teachers were needed to impart the knowledge of the rituals and texts to their students, who then helped spread the dharma to the lay practitioner.
Eventually, in the thankg kas, an image of the teachers bla ma , pronounced lama took the central position formerly reserved for the Buddha and the Bodhisattvas. Since the teacher is spreading the dharma , he is depicted similar to that of the Buddha and the First Sermon.
He sits in full lotus on a lotus throne, surrounded by his own lineage of teachers as well as by deities that are specific to his teachings. Buddhist architectural structures are human-scale versions of the legendary Mt. Practitioners would circumambulate the stupas to gain merit and generate positive karma. Unlike in India and China, Japan, Tibet, Thailand, and Burma , the stupa was not created as a stand-alone object elsewhere. Smaller stupas were incorporated into the grander architectural schemes in Java and Cambodia.
Where and what is Southeast Asia? Southeast Asia is comprised of two major areas: part of the Asia mainland and the nearby Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra.
In the first millennium, the mainland region came to be dominated by three ethnic groups who eventually became the Vietnamese, the Cambodians, the Thai, and Burmese. Hinduism proceeded Buddhism in this region, especially among the ruling classes. Buddhism was introduced by the second or third century, but it did not become established until the fifth or sixth, mainly in the areas of Thailand and Burma.
The earliest forms of Buddhist art were the bronze statues carried from India by monks and traders for example, the statue of Avalokiteshvara discussed previously. Monks and traders traveled back and forth between the two regions taking the scriptures and the votive statues from India to Indonesia. The temporal authority of the ruler reinforces this concept. Indonesia map of the region is a nation in Southeast Asia comprised of roughly seventeen thousand islands.
Indonesia has been an important trade destination since at least the seventh century, but trade with both India and China began as early as the first few centuries BCE. During this period, the grand monuments such as Borobudur were built. The approach to Borobudur, c. The approach gets narrower closer to the top. The reliefs on the lower level, which are now under the earth, depict the causes and effects of good and evil. The main, first, level contains two sub-levels. The lower illustrates five episodes from the former lives of the historic Buddha.
On each side of the structure is a different Buddha that corresponds to the 4 cardinal points:. There are three phases of Buddhist development and decline in these areas.