The film "Boy Erased" highlights controversial conversion therapies in the United States, which attempt to change homosexual children to heterosexual. This practice is surprisingly common in France. It was a coming-out story that turned into a nightmare. The film "Boy Erased", released March 27 in France , is based on the true story of the teenage son of a Baptist pastor from Arkansas. When he revealed his sexuality to his parents, they reacted by enrolling him in a "masculinisation" programme to "heal" him of his homosexuality.
Krafft-Ebing wrote about this method that " When he revealed his sexuality to his parents, they reacted by enrolling him in a "masculinisation" programme to "heal" him of his homosexuality. I gather from your letter that your son is a homosexual. These views lasted throughout the s, despite changed theoretical models of sexuality orientation in the West, during a period when the Chinese government held a "closed-door" policy on information about human sexuality. In Augustthe California State Legislature approved legislation prohibiting mental health providers from engaging in sexual Cure gays change efforts with minors, which Governor Jerry Brown signed into law Cure gays September 29, Ziritti was eventually released after two years of confinement and was the first to press a formal complaint against the clinics. InDuterte called the US ambassador to his country a " gay son of a bitch " in a speech, Cure gays US diplomats to raise the issue with their Filipino counterparts in Washington. Sigmund Freud was a physician and the founder of psychoanalysis.
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Praying away femininity! Since Christianity abolished God's holy word, Christians can now be homosexual, adulterers, murderers, gossipers, necromancers and what ever else was once prohibited by God. Follow TV Tropes. Haldeman writes that Masters and Johnson's study was founded upon heterosexist bias, and Cure gays it would be tremendously difficult to replicate. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. Pan American Health Organization. Retrieved 6 May I tried that at a Jesus camp for gay teens. Green Cure gays : Son? The New York Times. Black haired teen April 9, Some of the participants who failed felt a sense of shame and had gone through conversion therapy programs for many years. Retrieved March 27, American Dad!
- The ex-gay movement consists of individuals and organizations that encourage people to refrain from entering or pursuing same-sex relationships , eliminate homosexual desires and to develop heterosexual desires, or to enter into a heterosexual relationship.
- Created Gay.
- Phoenix, an American researcher.
- Before about and dating so far back that it's Older Than Steam lesbianism was thought of not as an active attraction to women but as a neurotic, unhealthy rejection of men or even of sex entirely "sex" at the time being thought of as all about men.
News U. HuffPost Personal Video Horoscopes. Newsletters Coupons. Follow Us. Queer Voices. By Lila Shapiro. Watch the interview above. To read an in-depth investigation into gay conversion therapy, check out HuffPost's story "Straight. The American Psychiatric Association declared that homosexuality was not a mental disorder in Why do you think it took.
Shurka thinks the new bill should make his job a little easier. He still remembers how he felt when he heard Brown decry.
The news, announced Wednesday, is something of a turnaround for the company. In recent years, the. Newsletter Sign Up. The Morning Email helps you start your workday with everything you need to know: breaking news, entertainment and a dash of fun. Subscribe here. While the this correspondence sheds light on his personal communications, it has long been known that Freud did not view. By Cavan Sieczkowski. Here comes the backlash.
Carden Crow, a year-old transgender man from Tahlequah, Oklahoma, said he went through conversion. He then added, "The media also like to bring up my sexuality a lot, probably because they see it as being a revelation as. The effort to ban a controversial therapy that purports to make gay people straight is gaining momentum in Pennsylvania, say. The idea of a therapist "curing" patients of same-sex attractions through talk therapy goes back to a time when homosexuality.
Huffington This Week: Parallel Lives. Conversion therapy has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years, not only in the form of lawsuits seeking to outlaw the treatment, but in the unequivocal opinion of mental health professionals that it is complete and utter nonsense.
By Arianna Huffington. Had I been given a choice, I would have chosen a gender identity congruent with my body's sex. I have suffered enormous, unspeakable pain for decades from having my real gender identity in conflict with my birth sex. By Danielle Kaufman, M. Reparative therapy to convert gays into straight people is nearly years old, yet the extent of its damage is just beginning to be understood.
Therapists and survivors join us for a look at conversion therapy's history and declining legitimacy. By HuffPost Video. Conversion therapy has attracted growing scrutiny in recent years. Just last week, the head of the largest so-called "ex. A new app claims to offer a day "gay cure" that will teach users how to finally find "freedom from the bondage of homosexuality.
In a new survey of people who have undergone a controversial treatment seeking to change their sexual orientation, a gay. Drescher is a member of the the American Psychiatric Association, a professional group that has joined other major professional. By Meredith Bennett-Smith.
Retrieved 12 June I was so depressed, I wanted to die. The American Prospect. But I wanted to be happy! The term "reparative therapy" has been used as a synonym for conversion therapy generally, but according to Jack Drescher it properly refers to a specific kind of therapy associated with the psychologists Elizabeth Moberly and Joseph Nicolosi.
Cure gays. Browse Sections
No because nothing you do or say will convince him. He has to make a choice himself as to what he wants to do. Sure you can point out verses like Lev and , but if he wishes to be gay, he'll do as he pleases, no matter what God or man says.
Please read this carefully. There is no way to cure homosexuality for being different is not an illness. He didnt pick to be the way he is, to live in fear of people finding out his secret.
Why percucute him when his is your brother. He confided in you who he really is, but you are still willing to rat him out to your community?
Please give him a chance. Does Christinanity not preach about accepting everyone no matter who they are? How can you tell someone they are going to hell just because of who they are. Please be open minded. Isnt that what your Jesus Preached? If anyone else Finds out about his homosexuality, Please defend him. Be a modern day saint. Sure it will be difficult, but what good acts arent? Sometimes the Hard thing and the Right thing are the same.
May Peace be with you. Complicated issue. I think the title of your post was unfortunate, though, and betrays the actual subject matter, which is, what, as a man's friend, do you do about letting the church know or not.
I think in this case that you have to let the man face his own consequences in life. It's his decision to go to church, it should be his decision how he wants to carry on within that relationship. You would be overstepping your bounds to inform anyone, other than someone for you to talk to about your own personal concerns.
That guy feels guilty enough without you having to further traumatize him by trying to get him ostracized from the church. And you call yourself his friend? Leave him be as a 'nice man,' as you called him, and to live his own life. Gay isn't cured it's not illness or anything wrong. Seriously, sometimes this world seems like it's still in the Middle Ages! UMM great delema. You can never change anybaody from their actions. But since it is against Christain beliefs then that presents the challenge.
If he is in a position of leadership then he must be an example to others. Talk with a minister from another church that might help. Where to start Although there are many organizations that do try to "cure" homosexuality.
There is no cure as there is no cure for pedophiles either. Maybe consider this possibility, a homosexual is of no direct threat to you. Fact is there is no cure, even a "recovering" homosexual will always have attraction to the same sex. What kind of life and how fair would that be to your family member?
This man trusted you, appreciate this, he put trust in you. Let him figure life out for himself. How can you decide who is or isn't going to hell in this matter? Are you saying you are God to judge others this way?
Why are you so worried about his problems when you have enough of your own to fix? Clean out your own closet before going through others. He who casts the first stone, let him be without sin. The church picks out specific sins to freak people out, truth is everybody has sins that are highly offensive. We are equal and filthy in sin. God will always fix you first before worrying about others. Jesus did not cast out the harlot who believed in him.
He accepted her. He hung out with the sinners remember? Not possible. And, you need to be cured of your bigotry.
Nowhere in the Bible does it say that gays are to be ostrasized and flamed. Jesus said to accept everyone and if you cannot do that, you are going against His word. Might as well do the same to the others: the adulterers, the drunks, the pregnant teens, etc.
Pagination 1. Existing questions. Freud replied in a letter that later became famous: . I gather from your letter that your son is a homosexual. By asking me if I can help [your son], you mean, I suppose, if I can abolish homosexuality and make normal heterosexuality take its place.
The answer is, in a general way we cannot promise to achieve it. It is a question of the quality and the age of the individual.
The result of treatment cannot be predicted. Ferenczi hoped to cure some kinds of homosexuality completely, but was content in practice with reducing what he considered gay men's hostility to women, along with the urgency of their homosexual desires, and with helping them to become attracted to and potent with women.
In his view, a gay man who was confused about his sexual identity and felt himself to be "a woman with the wish to be loved by a man" was not a promising candidate for cure. Ferenczi believed that complete cures of homosexuality might become possible in the future when psychoanalytic technique had been improved. Anna Freud reported the successful treatment of homosexuals as neurotics in a series of unpublished lectures.
In her view, it was important to pay attention to the interaction of passive and active homosexual fantasies and strivings, the original interplay of which prevented adequate identification with the father. The patient should be told that his choice of a passive partner allows him to enjoy a passive or receptive mode, while his choice of an active partner allows him to recapture his lost masculinity.
She claimed that these interpretations would reactivate repressed castration anxieties , and childhood narcissistic grandiosity and its complementary fear of dissolving into nothing during heterosexual intercourse would come with the renewal of heterosexual potency. In these articles, she insisted on the attainment of full object-love of the opposite sex as a requirement for cure of homosexuality. In she gave a lecture about treatment of homosexuality which was criticised by Edmund Bergler , who emphasised the oral fears of patients and minimized the importance of the phallic castration fears she had discussed.
The other reason is that readers may take this as a confirmation that all analysis can do is to convince patients that their defects or 'immoralities' do not matter and that they should be happy with them. That would be unfortunate. Melanie Klein was a pupil of Ferenczi.
Her seminal book The Psycho-Analysis of Children , based on lectures given to the British Psychoanalytical Society in the s, was published in Complete analysis of patients with such unstable developments would require uncovering these early concerns. The Psycho-Analysis of Children ends with the analysis of Mr. Klein claimed that he illustrated pathologies that enter into all forms of homosexuality: a gay man idealizes "the good penis" of his partner to allay the fear of attack he feels due to having projected his paranoid hatred onto the imagined "bad penis" of his mother as an infant.
She stated that Mr. This was made possible by his recovering his belief in the good mother and his ability to sexually gratify her with his good penis and plentiful semen.
In March , a majority of against representatives in the European parliament passed a resolution condemning conversion therapy and urging European Union member states to ban the practice.
Psychoanalysis started to receive recognition in the United States in , when Sigmund Freud delivered a series of lectures at Clark University in Massachusetts at the invitation of G. Stanley Hall. Wilhelm Stekel , an Austrian, published his views on treatment of homosexuality, which he considered a disease, in the American Psychoanalytic Review in Stekel believed that "success was fairly certain" in changing homosexuality through psychoanalysis provided that it was performed correctly and the patient wanted to be treated.
Deutsch reported her analysis of a lesbian, who did not become heterosexual as a result of treatment, but who managed to achieve a "positive libidinal relationship" with another woman. Deutsch indicated that she would have considered heterosexuality a better outcome.
Kinsey's work, and its reception, led Bergler to develop his own theories for treatment, which were essentially to " blame the victim ", in the evaluation of Jennifer Terry, associate professor of Woman's Studies. Bergler openly violated professional ethics to achieve this, breaking patient confidentiality in discussing the cases of patients with other patients, bullying them, calling them liars and telling them they were worthless.
Bergler confronted Kinsey because Kinsey thwarted the possibility of cure by presenting homosexuality as an acceptable way of life, which was the basis of the gay rights activism of the time.
In , the mother who wrote to Freud asking him to treat her son sent Freud's response to the American Journal of Psychiatry , in which it was published.
There was a riot in at the Stonewall Bar in New York after a police raid. The Stonewall riot acquired symbolic significance for the gay rights movement and came to be seen as the opening of a new phase in the struggle for gay liberation. Following these events, conversion therapy came under increasing attack. Activism against conversion therapy increasingly focused on the DSM's designation of homosexuality as a psychopathology.
Supporters of the change used evidence from researchers such as Kinsey and Evelyn Hooker. Psychiatrist Robert Spitzer, a member of the APA's Committee on Nomenclature, played an important role in the events that led to this decision. Critics argued that it was a result of pressure from gay activists, and demanded a referendum among voting members of the Association. Joseph Nicolosi had a significant role in the development of conversion therapy as early as the s, publishing his first book Reparative Therapy of Male Homosexuality in United States Surgeon General David Satcher in issued a report stating that "there is no valid scientific evidence that sexual orientation can be changed".
He told The Washington Post that the study "shows some people can change from gay to straight, and we ought to acknowledge that". The American Psychoanalytic Association spoke against NARTH in , stating "that organization does not adhere to our policy of nondiscrimination and The American Psychological Association in convened a task force to evaluate its policies regarding reparative therapy.
In , the organizers of an APA panel on the relationship between religion and homosexuality canceled the event after gay activists objected that "conversion therapists and their supporters on the religious right use these appearances as a public relations event to try and legitimize what they do".
In , American Psychological Association stated that it "encourages mental health professionals to avoid misrepresenting the efficacy of sexual orientation change efforts by promoting or promising change in sexual orientation when providing assistance to individuals distressed by their own or others' sexual orientation and concludes that the benefits reported by participants in sexual orientation change efforts can be gained through approaches that do not attempt to change sexual orientation".
The ethics guidelines of major mental health organizations in the United States vary from cautionary statements to recommendations that ethical practitioners refrain from practicing conversion therapy American Psychiatric Association or from referring patients to those who do American Counseling Association.
House of Representatives, the Attorney General of the United States stated "while sexual orientation carries no visible badge, a growing scientific consensus accepts that sexual orientation is a characteristic that is immutable". President Barack Obama expressed opposition to the practice in Before the American Psychological Association's decision to remove homosexuality from the DSM , practitioners of conversion therapy employed aversive conditioning techniques , involving electric shock and nausea-inducing drugs during presentation of same-sex erotic images.
Cessation of the aversive stimuli was typically accompanied by the presentation of opposite-sex erotic images, with the objective of strengthening heterosexual feelings.
In "Aversion therapy for sexual deviation: a critical review", published in , M. Haldeman writes that behavioral conditioning studies tend to decrease homosexual feelings, but do not increase heterosexual feelings, citing Rangaswami's "Difficulties in arousing and increasing heterosexual responsiveness in a homosexual: A case report", published in , as typical in this respect. Haldeman concludes that such methods can be called torture , besides being ineffective. He writes that "Individuals undergoing such treatments do not emerge heterosexually inclined; rather they become shamed, conflicted, and fearful about their homosexual feelings.
Some sources describe ex-gay ministries as a form of conversion therapy, while others state that ex-gay organizations and conversion therapy are distinct methods of attempting to convert gay people to heterosexuality. Haldeman writes that psychoanalytic treatment of homosexuality is exemplified by the work of Irving Bieber et al. They advocated long-term therapy aimed at resolving the unconscious childhood conflicts that they considered responsible for homosexuality.
Haldeman notes that Bieber's methodology has been criticized because it relied upon a clinical sample, the description of the outcomes was based upon subjective therapist impression, and follow-up data were poorly presented.
In Haldeman's view, this makes even Bieber's unimpressive claims of success misleading. Haldeman discusses other psychoanalytic studies of attempts to change homosexuality.
Curran and Parr's "Homosexuality: An analysis of male cases", published in , reported no significant increase in heterosexual behavior. Mayerson and Lief's "Psychotherapy of homosexuals: A follow-up study of nineteen cases", published in , reported that half of its 19 subjects were exclusively heterosexual in behavior four and a half years after treatment, but its outcomes were based on patient self-report and had no external validation.
In Haldeman's view, those participants in the study who reported change were bisexual at the outset, and its authors wrongly interpreted capacity for heterosexual sex as change of sexual orientation. The term "reparative therapy" has been used as a synonym for conversion therapy generally, but according to Jack Drescher it properly refers to a specific kind of therapy associated with the psychologists Elizabeth Moberly and Joseph Nicolosi.
Haldeman has described William Masters' and Virginia Johnson 's work on sexual orientation change as a form of conversion therapy.
In Homosexuality in Perspective , published in , Masters and Johnson viewed homosexuality as the result of blocks that prevented the learning that facilitated heterosexual responsiveness, and described a study of 54 gay men who were dissatisfied with their sexual orientation.
The original study did not describe the treatment methodology used, but this was published five years later. John C. Gonsiorek criticized their study on several grounds in , pointing out that while Masters and Johnson stated that their patients were screened for major psychopathology or severe neurosis, they did not explain how this screening was performed, or how the motivation of the patients to change was assessed.
Nineteen of their subjects were described as uncooperative during therapy and refused to participate in a follow-up assessment, but all of them were assumed without justification to have successfully changed. Haldeman writes that Masters and Johnson's study was founded upon heterosexist bias, and that it would be tremendously difficult to replicate. In his view, the distinction Masters and Johnson made between "conversion" helping gay men with no previous heterosexual experience to learn heterosexual sex and "reversion" directing men with some previous heterosexual experience back to heterosexuality was not well founded.
Haldeman concludes that it is likely that, rather than converting or reverting gay people to heterosexuality, Masters and Johnson only strengthened heterosexual responsiveness in people who were already bisexual.
In the s and s, U. He personally performed as many as 3,  lobotomy surgeries in 23 states, of which 2, used his ice-pick procedure,  despite the fact that he had no formal surgical training.
Evelyn Hooker. The study was partly a response to the APA's statement cautioning against clinical attempts at changing homosexuality, and was aimed at determining whether such attempts were ever successful rather than how likely it was that change would occur for any given individual. Spitzer wrote that some earlier studies provided evidence for the effectiveness of therapy in changing sexual orientation, but that all of them suffered from methodological problems. In , Spitzer renounced   and retracted this study, stating "I was quite wrong in the conclusions that I made from this study.
The study does not provide evidence, really, that gays can change. And that's quite an admission on my part. In , Spitzer published the paper in the Archives of Sexual Behavior. Spitzer's study has been criticized on numerous ethical and methodological grounds, and "press releases from both NGLTF and HRC sought to undermine Spitzer's credibility by connecting him politically to right-wing groups that had backed the ex-gay movement ".
Critics felt he dismissed this source of bias, without even attempting to measure deception or self-deception a standard practice in self-reporting psychological tests like MMPI It was impossible to determine whether any change that occurred was due to the treatment because it was not clear what it involved and there was no control group.
Follow-up studies were not conducted. Spitzer said that the number of gay people who could successfully become heterosexual was likely to be "pretty low",  and conceded that his subjects were "unusually religious". The remainder reported either losing all sexual drive or attempting to remain celibate, with no change in attraction.
Some of the participants who failed felt a sense of shame and had gone through conversion therapy programs for many years. Others who failed believed that therapy was worthwhile and valuable. Many respondents felt harmed by the attempt to change, and reported depression, suicidal ideation and attempts , hypervigilance of gender-deviant mannerisms, social isolation, fear of being a child abuser and poor self-esteem.
Of the 8 respondents out of a sample of who reported a change in sexual orientation, 7 worked as ex-gay counselors or group leaders. In January , the Ecuadorian Government raided three conversion therapy clinics in Quito , rescued dozens of women who were abused and tortured in an effort to "cure their homosexuality", and promised to shut down every such clinic in the country.
In February , German Health Minister Jens Spahn said he will seek to ban conversion therapies that claim to change sexual orientation. In February and in March , the Knesset rejected bills introduced by former Health Minister Yael German that would have banned conversion therapy in Israel for minors. The bills were rejected 37—45 and 26—38, respectively. In February , owners of a conversion therapy camp were found guilty of murder, child abuse and assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm after three teens were found dead at the camp.
The teens were beaten with spades and rubber pipes, chained to their beds, not allowed to use the toilet at any time and forced to eat soap and their own feces, all with the aim of "curing" their homosexuality.
The Spanish Psychological Association states that there is no evidence to support conversion therapy. Reports emerged in summer of a therapist claiming to be able to "cure" homosexuality through homoeopathy. He was promptly fired, and an investigation was opened with the Geneva Ministry of Health. Instead of pushing ahead legal amendments or new regulations, on 22 February , the Ministry of Health and Welfare issued a letter to all local health authorities on the matter, which effectively banned conversion 'therapy'.
After reports of a Liverpool church starving individuals for three days as a means to "cure" their homosexuality, the Church of England announced it considers conversion therapy "fundamentally wrong" and demanded the Government ban it. On 3 July , the UK Government announced it would work towards a total ban on conversion therapy across medical, non-medical, and religious settings.
Subsequently, legal challenges against New Jersey 's and California 's conversion therapy bans were filed. Wolfson rejected the claim of New Jersey parents that it violated their rights by keeping them from treating their child for same-sex attraction. In Doe v. Christie , Wolfson wrote: "Surely, the fundamental rights of parents do not include the right to choose a specific medical or mental health treatment that the state has reasonably deemed harmful or ineffective.
Brown and Welch v. Supreme Court has repeatedly dismissed challenges against conversion therapy bans. Opinion polls have found that conversion therapy bans enjoy popular support among the American population. Although no national ban exists, several US states and individual counties ban therapy attempting to change sexual orientation as shown in the map below.
Many health organizations around the world have denounced and criticized sexual orientation change efforts. Anecdotal claims of cures are counterbalanced by assertions of harm, and the American Psychiatric Association, for example, cautions ethical practitioners under the Hippocratic oath to do no harm and to refrain from attempts at conversion therapy.
Mainstream medical bodies state that conversion therapy can be harmful because it may exploit guilt and anxiety, thereby damaging self-esteem and leading to depression and even suicide. The American Psychological Association undertook a study of the peer-reviewed literature in the area of sexual orientation change efforts SOCE and found a myriad of issues with the procedures used in conducting the research. The taskforce did find that some participants experienced a lessening of same sex attraction and arousal, but that these instances were "rare" and "uncommon".
The taskforce concluded that, "given the limited amount of methodically sound research, claims that recent SOCE is effective are not supported". The American Psychological Association 's code of conduct states that "Psychologists respect the dignity and worth of all people, and the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiality, and self-determination", but also that "Psychologists are aware that special safeguards may be necessary to protect the rights and welfare of persons or communities whose vulnerabilities impair autonomous decision making.
Supporters of SOCE focus on patient self-determination when discussing whether therapy should be available. Mark Yarhouse, of Pat Robertson 's Regent University , wrote that "psychologists have an ethical responsibility to allow individuals to pursue treatment aimed at curbing experiences of same-sex attraction or modifying same-sex behaviors, not only because it affirms the client's rights to dignity, autonomy, and agency, as persons presumed capable of freely choosing among treatment modalities and behavior, but also because it demonstrates regard for diversity".
In response to Yarhouse's paper, Jack Drescher argued that "any putative ethical obligation to refer a patient for reparative therapy is outweighed by a stronger ethical obligation to keep patients away from mental health practitioners who engage in questionable clinical practices". Haldeman argues that, due to concern for people whose "spiritual or religious concerns" may assume priority over their sexual orientation, mental health organizations do not ban conversion therapy outright.
In , the American Psychiatric Association issued a statement opposing any treatment which is based upon the assumption that homosexuality is a mental disorder or that a person should change their orientation, but did not have a formal position on other treatments that attempt to change a person's sexual orientation. The American Counseling Association has stated that they do not condone any training to educate and prepare a counselor to practice conversion therapy.
Counselors who do offer training in conversion therapy must inform students that the techniques are unproven. They suggest counselors do not refer clients to a conversion therapist or to proceed cautiously once they know the counselor fully informs clients of the unproven nature of the treatment and the potential risks.
However, "it is of primary importance to respect a client's autonomy to request a referral for a service not offered by a counselor". A counselor performing conversion therapy must provide complete information about the treatment, offer referrals to gay-affirmative counselors, discuss the right of clients, understand the client's request within a cultural context, and only practice within their level of expertise.
NARTH stated in that refusing to offer therapy aimed at change to a client who requests it, and telling them that their only option is to claim a gay identity, could also be considered ethically unacceptable. A article by the Committee on Adolescence of the American Academy of Pediatrics stated "Referral for 'conversion' or 'reparative therapy' is never indicated; therapy is not effective and may be harmful to LGBTQ individuals by increasing internalized stigma, distress, and depression.
In , the American Association of Christian Counselors amended its code of ethics to eliminate the promotion of conversion therapy for homosexuals and encouraged them to be celibate instead. The authors argue that the doctor's medical ethics means they should place the interests of the patient above the cultural sensitivities of the parents, and confidentially counsel the patient about resources for LGBT youth facing bullying, and advise the parents about resources for parents of LGBT children.
In , with support of the UK Government's Department of Health , a wide range of UK organisations signed a memorandum of understanding MoU setting out an agreed framework for activities by parties concerned to help address the issues raised by the practice of conversion therapy in the UK.
The signatory organisations recognised a shared commitment to protecting the public from the risks of conversion therapy.
They committed to raise awareness among healthcare professionals and psychological therapists of ethical issues involved in conversion therapy and to provide training to enable therapists to support clients in distress in an appropriate way. It lists ego-dystonic sexual orientation as a disorder instead, which it defines as occurring where "the gender identity or sexual preference heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, or prepubertal is not in doubt, but the individual wishes it were different because of associated psychological and behavioural disorders, and may seek treatment in order to change it".
In , the Pan American Health Organization the North and South American branch of the World Health Organization released a statement cautioning against services that purport to "cure" people with non-heterosexual sexual orientations as they lack medical justification and represent a serious threat to the health and well-being of affected people, and noted that the global scientific and professional consensus is that homosexuality is a normal and natural variation of human sexuality and cannot be regarded as a pathological condition.
The Pan American Health Organization further called on governments, academic institutions, professional associations and the media to expose these practices and to promote respect for diversity. The World Health Organization affiliate further noted that gay minors have sometimes been forced to attend these "therapies" involuntarily, being deprived of their liberty and sometimes kept in isolation for several months, and that these findings were reported by several United Nations bodies.
The development of theoretical models of sexual orientation in countries outside the United States that have established mental health professions often follows the history within the U.
Major medical and psychological bodies in Australia uniformly prohibit conversion therapy practices,   with published statements having come from peak bodies representing psychologists,  psychiatrists,   and medical practitioners.
The Position Statement supports this position by reference to the Society's Code of Ethics, which were adopted in  and mandated as the Code of Ethics for Australian psychologists in by the Psychology Board of Australia. The Position Statement explicitly states that this ethical "requirement not to discriminate and to respect clients' moral rights does not equate to a justification to treat homosexuality or bisexuality as a disorder requiring treatment,"  relying on the Code of Ethics' section on propriety: "psychologists only provide psychological services within the boundaries of their professional competence [which] includes but is not restricted to The Society's position concludes by noting that it "is, of course, appropriate for psychologists to provide clinical services to clients who experience distress in regards to their sexual orientation Evidence-based strategies to alleviate distress do not include attempts at changing sexual orientation, but could include challenging negative stereotypes, seeking social support, and self-acceptance, among others.
A Fairfax Media investigation in reported that "across Australia, organisations who believe that LGBTI people can or should change are hard at work. Conversion practices are hidden in evangelical churches and ministries, taking the form of exorcisms, prayer groups or counselling disguised as pastoral care.
They're also present in some religious schools or practised in the private offices of health professionals. They're pushed out through a thriving network of courses and mentors in the borderless world of cyberspace, cloaked in the terminology of 'self improvement' or 'spiritual healing.
Following the Fairfax investigation, Victorian Premier Daniel Andrews called on Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull to support outlawing conversion therapy as part of the national mental health strategy. Federal Health Minister Greg Hunt declared that the issue is one for the states as no Commonwealth funding goes to sexual orientation change efforts—though "gay conversion ideology has been quietly pushed in schools as part of the federal government's chaplaincy program.
Chris, a survivor of conversion therapy joined Andrews in calling for the Federal Government to outlaw conversion therapy, declaring that "praying the gay away nearly killed me. I was so depressed, I wanted to die. In an unprecedented move, the state government indicated it would not only investigate health professionals but will focus on religious and faith-based ministries propagating Gay Conversion ideologies. It is abhorrent and completely inconsistent with the inclusive values of Canberrans.
In a U. A Russian citizen "had been apprehended by the Russian militia, registered at a clinic as a 'suspected lesbian', and forced to undergo treatment for lesbianism, such as 'sedative drugs' and hypnosis.
The Ninth Circuit held that the conversion treatments to which Pitcherskaia had been subjected constituted mental and physical torture. In , the Superior Court of San Francisco's Family Court placed year-old lesbian Lyn Duff under the guardianship of a foster couple after her mother committed her to Rivendell Psychiatric Center in West Jordan, Utah, where she allegedly endured physical abuse under the guise of conversion therapy.
Lyn Duff's petition to leave her mother was granted without court opinion. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 22 October Pseudoscientific attempts to change sexual orientation. Main article: Sigmund Freud's views on homosexuality. Main article: Behavior modification. Main article: Ex-gay. Main article: Psychoanalysis.
Main article: Masters and Johnson. Main article: Lobotomy. Further information: Biology and sexual orientation , Environment and sexual orientation , Timeline of sexual orientation and medicine , and Homosexuality and psychology.
Ban on conversion therapy on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. De facto ban on conversion therapy. Case-by-case bans. Ban on conversion therapy pending or proposed. No ban on conversion therapy. Main article: List of U. Ban on conversion therapy for minors on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity.
No ban on conversion therapy for minors. Southern California Law Review. Archived from the original PDF on 19 September Retrieved 25 November Archived from the original PDF on June 5, Retrieved January 14, December Retrieved March 16, American Psychiatric Association. Archived from the original on January 10, Retrieved August 28, The validity, efficacy and ethics of clinical attempts to change an individual's sexual orientation have been challenged.
To date, there are no scientifically rigorous outcome studies to determine either the actual efficacy or harm of "reparative" treatments. Department of Health and Human Services , U. The Atlantic Magazine. Evelyn Hooker" Documentary Film. Internet Movie Database.
Archives of Sexual Behavior. Hitchcock, E. Modern Concepts in Psychiatric Surgery : — February Monitor on Psychology.
Retrieved 6 May The Bilerico Project. Archived from the original on Retrieved Jason Aronson. The Atlantic. Retrieved 29 November The Washington Post. The American Prospect.
April 11, Retrieved May 26, Archived from the original on May 25, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown link archived here. BBC News. American University Law Review. Retrieved 28 November Examining the Controversy". Republican Party of Texas. Retrieved 26 December June 24, Neurology Today. Retrieved July 9, New York Magazine.
Huffington Post. Philadelphia, PA. Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved January 3, Spitzer renounced his infamous study that said that some highly motivated homosexuals could change from gay to straight.
Conversion therapy - Wikipedia
Welcome sign in sign up. You can enter multiple addresses separated by commas to send the article to a group; to send to recipients individually, enter just one address at a time. Despite the emergence in recent decades of gay-affirming scriptural exegeses, many major religious denominations continue to regard homosexual acts, if not the homosexual inclination itself, as immoral.
Texas , was gay sex decriminalized across the United States, thereby lifting the menace of legal sanction that had long shadowed gay lives. And thirty years earlier, a similar liberation had taken place when the stigma of mental illness was officially disassociated from same-sex attraction. For this latter advance in human understanding, we largely have Frank Kameny to thank.
A Harvard-trained astronomer fired from his job in the Army Map Service in because of his sexual orientation, Kameny was the first person to challenge the federal government over its anti-gay discrimination policies. Understanding that the rationale for barring highly qualified homosexuals like him from public service rested not only upon the McCarthyite claim that they were liable to subversion, but also that they were mentally unfit, he took it upon himself to change the scientific consensus.
One suggested method entailed reading said magazine not for the articles but the pictures. It was also a source of untold personal torment. The latter, administered by medical professionals, would sometimes entail a patient being injected with a nausea-inducing element and made to view sensual images of members of their own sex. In , when a gay undergraduate at no less a cerebral and rational place than the Massachusetts Institute of Technology tried to organize a dance for Boston-area gay students, the dean of student affairs turned him down.
To such castigatory generalizations about the sanity of him and his fellow gays, Kameny had a bold retort. The battle over the APA designation is the subject of a forthcoming documentary film, Cured. The publication of the report is timed to coincide with the release of the film Boy Erased , based on the real-life experiences of a young man forced by his evangelical Christian parents to undergo conversion therapy in at a Memphis facility administered by LIA.
The report traces the origins of modern-day conversion therapy to St. Elizabeths Hospital in Washington, D. Elizabeths Hospital for the Insane. Benjamin Karpman. Opponents of conversion, however, eventually won another sort of victory. And if we were educated and equipped, we could not have gotten a license to do it.
The mental health professionals and organizations all clearly stated that homosexuality is not a mental disorder. According to the Williams Institute , an LGBT think tank, some , LGBT people in the United States have been subjected to conversion therapy, and 57, children will be sent to such programs before the age of eighteen. A dozen states including the District of Columbia currently prohibit state-licensed mental health professionals from practicing conversion therapy techniques on minors.
Ever since , however, when the APA removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders, conversion therapy has largely been the remit of religious ministries, which are, of course, free to tell parishioners whatever they wish about the ways of the universe, the sinfulness of same-sex attraction included. One creative way of addressing this loophole is to treat conversion therapy as a form of consumer fraud.
To be sure, that dangerous sect still attracts a handful of followers. And if we both still differ, there will be a war. And I tend not to lose my wars. Facebook Twitter RSS. Email Email to share with Send Send a copy to myself.